You Will Be Able to Answer These Questions at the End of Class

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2 You Will Be Able to Answer These Questions at the End of Class FOCUS QUESTIONS 1. What was the Enlightenment? 2. How did the Enlightenment contribute to new theories regarding society and government?

3 Focus Question # 1: What was the Enlightenment?

4 18 th century philosophical movement in Europe Inspired by the Scientific Revolution and the Scientific Method Believed they could use scientific method to create a better society Isaac Newton (Scientists)

5 Philosophy Study of general problems such as existence, truth, mind, knowledge, etc. The role of philosophy was to change the world for the better Spirit of rational criticism of everything, including religion, government, and society Often Philosophy sparks disagreement

6 Focus Question # 2: What were the major ideas and beliefs of the Enlightenment? 1. John Locke 2. Government 3. Religion 4. Economy 5. Society

7 Scientific Revolution Natural laws govern physical world Philosophers thought they could discover natural laws that govern human society Believed humans were shaped by their experiences and environment in the natural world Change environment + expose humans to right experiences = better society John Locke ( )

8

9 Human beings should have free will Obedience should be out of conviction, not out of fear Power and wealth is not decided by God 3 Natural Rights: Life, liberty, and property Government should be a republic people posses the power and free will of society U.S. Declaration of Independence

10 How Did the Enlightenment Change the basic ideas of GOVERNMENT?

11 Used scientific method to study governments 3 Basic Governments Republics, Dictatorship, and Monarchies Believed in separation of powers and a system of checks and balances Broke down government to executive, legislative, and judicial branches

12 How Did the Enlightenment Change the basic ideas of RELIGION?

13 Voltaire ( ) Voltaire considered the greatest figure from Enlightenment Believed in religious toleration Championed deism a religious philosophy based on reason and natural law

14 One-single universal God God, the clockmaker, had created the universe, set it in motion, and allowed it to run without interference according to its own natural laws Do not believe in divine miracles. God has a plan for the universe but does not interfere with human life or suspend natural laws Some historians believe that many of the founding fathers were Deists

15 Every man is guilty of all the good he didn t do If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong Judge a man by his questions rather than his answers The way to be boring is to say everything I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it

16 How Did the Enlightenment Change the basic ideas of ECONOMICS?

17 Interested in identifying the natural economic laws that governed human society Laissez-Faire Economics Government should leave the economy alone at all times Government has 3 roles: Protect against invasion, defend citizens from injustice, and keeping up public works (Ex. Roads)

18 How Did the Enlightenment Change the basic ideas of SOCIETY?

19 People had adopted laws and government in order to protect their property. In the process they have become enslaved. Social Contract Theory People should do what is best for the general will, because the general will represents what is best for the entire community Did not believe in the progressive rights of women

20 Founder of modern European and American movement for women s rights Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women Died shortly after giving birth to daughter who wrote Frankenstein Mary Wollstonecraft ( )

21 1.) She said that the same philosophers who argued that women must obey men no matter what also argued the people should NOT obey governments who were wrong or too controlling the government (double standard) 2.) Enlightenment was based on reason in human beings. Because women are human beings and have reason, then they should be entitled to the same rights as men.

22

23 What are the following pictures of?

24 Where are these girls at?

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