Toward a New Worldview

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1 PrductivityStudent Toward a New Worldview Major Breakthroughs of the Scientific Revolution Scientific Thought in 1500 What is natural philosophy? The study of the nature of universe, its purpose, and how it functioned. What we would call science today. Based on the ideas of Aristotle. Model of the universe: Earth is in the middle Aristotelian philosophy fixed perfectly with Christian doctrines by Thomas Aquinas Great Chain of Being The Aristotelian Universe - Earth was the center of the universe. Who is Ptolemy? Hellenized (Greco-Roman) Egyptian scholar Ptolemy s Teachings 1. Planets move in epicycles. 2. Earth was the center of the universe. * Ptolemaic astronomy requires complex calculations. Origins of the Scientific Revolution Causes of the Scientific Revolution (1) Medieval universities layed down the foundations of new views. Established new professorships of mathematics, astronomy, and optics. (2) Renaissance ideas stimulated scientific progress. Renaissance patronized scientific investigations. Took interest in realism and use of geometry to convey perspective.

2 (3) Technological Developments Printing press allowed knowledge and new ideas to circulate faster across Europe. Navigation and cartography critical in the development of new instruments: telescope, barometer, thermometer, pendulum clock, microscope, and air pump. Allowed sailors to make more accurate observations. Role of Centuries-old Practices For many years, many believed that the changing relationship between planets and stars influence events on Earth. Magic/alchemy The Copernican Hypothesis What led to the departure from medieval thinking? The desire to explain and thereby glorify God s handiwork Who is Nicolaus Copernicus? A Polish cleric Studied astronomy, medicine, and church law. Challenged Aristotelian physics Copernican Theory 1. Sun is the center of the universe. 2. Earth revolves around the sun. 3. Earth rotates on its axis. 4. The universe is unthinkably large. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres Published at the year of his death; 1543 Different Reactions to the Copernican Hypothesis Protestant scholars took an interest in Copernicus ideas, while others accepted his criticisms of Ptolemy, but also rejected the heliocentric model. Was not declared false by the Catholic Church (who initially ignored his teachings) until 1616.

3 Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo: Proving Copernicus Right Who is Tycho Brahe? Danish nobleman and astronomer. Casted horoscopes and based his daily life on astrological principles. Brahe s Significance Created new tables of planetary motions: Rudolphine Tables. Known for his accurate planetary observations. He had an assistant...johannes Kepler. Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. What did Kepler do? Developed three laws: Orbits of the planets around the star are elliptical. A planet moves faster when close to the sun and vice versa. Orbital period is related to a planet s distance from the sun. United natural philosophy with mathematics. Completed the Rudolphine Tables. First to study the field of optics. Created the basis for integral calculus and advances in geometry. Then came Galileo Galilei. Galilei was an Italian mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher. What did Galileo do? Created the experimental method a new method of learning was developed. Formulated the law of inertia: rest is natural state of objects, unless stopped by some force. Discovered the moons of Jupiter provided new evidence for Copernican theory. Works of Copernicus and his supporters were included in the list of forbidden books. Published Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World (1632) Put on trial for heresy and imprisoned.

4 Newton s Synthesis By 1640, the science community has accepted the works of Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo. Who is Isaac Newton? An English scientist. United experimental and theoretical-mathematical sides of modern science. Believed in alchemy. Newton s Significance He published Principia. Created a set of laws that explained motion and mechanics. Law of Universal Gravitation Synthesized mathematics with physics and astronomy. Important Changes in Scientific Thinking Bacon, Descartes, and the Scientific Method Major Achievement (17th c.): Better ways of obtaining knowledge Two Important thinkers: Francis Bacon English politician and writer. Rejected medieval way of thinking. Formalized the empirical method (empiricism/inductive reasoning) Knowledge is based on experiment and experimentation. His followers created the Royal Society, which met weekly to discuss and conduct experiments. René Descartes Discovered analytic geometry provided scientist with a new tool. Stressed mathematics and deductive reasoning (rationalism). Human reasoning is the best way of understanding. Everything should be doubted until proven. Cartesian dualism: mind (immaterial) and body (material) are two independent substances that make a human being.

5 Bacon and Descartes different philosophy of knowledge highly influenced the scientific method based on experimentation and mathematical reasoning. Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry Galen s Explanation The body contained four humors: blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile. Illness is a result from an imbalance of humors. Bloodletting is the solution. GALEN S MEDICAL VIEWS WERE CHALLENGED: Who is Paracelsus? Swiss physician and alchemist Father of Modern Medicine Paracelsus Explanation Disease caused by chemical imbalances. Who is Andreas Vesalius? Flemish physician. Studied anatomy by dissecting human bodies. Major Work: On the Structure of the Human Body Who is William Harvey? English royal physician. Discovered how blood was pumped by the heart and circulated throughout the body. Who is Robert Boyle? Found modern science of chemistry. Discovered Boyle s Law : the pressure of a gas varies inversely with volume. Who is Anton van Leeuwenhoek? Father of Microscopy Developed powerful microscopes. First to see and write about bacteria, yeast plants, etc.

6 Empire and Natural History Scholars published new works regarding the different forms of life in other parts of the world. Encyclopedias Included realistic drawings, illustrations, and descriptions Government began sponsoring scientific expeditions for both profit and obtaining knowledge. Other countries began to invest invest in science as their empires expanded. People enjoyed reading the accounts of naturalists, who braved the heat, insects, and diseases of tropical jungles to bring home exotic animal, vegetables, and mineral specimens. They began collecting natural history which led to the establishment of museums. Science and Society 1. The rise of the national scientific community sought expansion of knowledge. 2. Creation of the modern scientific method; a new way of obtaining knowledge that is both experimental and theoretical. The Enlightenment The Emergence of the Enlightenment What is the Enlightenment? A period of philosophical, social and civil development in the 18th century. Three Main Concepts (1) Rationalism - Methods of science could be applied to understanding all aspects of life. (2) Social science - The scientific method could discover laws of human society. (3) Creation of better societies and better people.

7 People began to wonder whether religious truth could ever be known. Enlightenment thinkers wanted to go beyond antiquity. Pierre Bayle Bayle was a Huguenot well-known for his work Historical and Critical Dictionary which concluded that nothing can be ever known beyond all doubt, a view known as skepticism. Baruch Spinoza Spinoza is a Dutch Jewish philosopher who believed that the mind and body are united. He was excommunicated for his concept of a deterministic universe in which good and evil are relative values. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz Leibniz is a German philosopher and mathematician known for his optimistic view of the universe. John Locke Locke is a physician and member of the Royal Society, known for his theory about how human beings learn and form their ideas from experience ( Essay Concerning Human Understanding ). His work Two Treatises of Civil Government concluded the sovereignty of the Parliament against the authority of the Crown. The Influence of the Philosophes In the mid-eighteenth century, France became the center of Enlightenment thought, where a group of French intellectuals, or philosophes emerged. One of the greatest philosophes: Baron de Montesquieu His work The Persian Letters was an influential satire and considered the first major work of the Enlightenment.

8 Wrote The Spirit of Laws : studied republics, monarchs, despotism Stressed: Separation of powers Balance of power Who is Voltaire? Also known as François Marie Arouet. What did he do? Wrote volumes of work, mostly satire. Still believed in strong monarchy. Pushed for freedom of religion. Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts Goal : change the general way of thinking. Edited by Diderot and d Alembert who reached out to other philosophes to include their ideas in this work. The Encyclopedia was believed to have the power of improving society and the people. It widely read and extremely influential. Jean-Jacques Rousseau Contributed his articles on music to the Encyclopedia. Division of gender roles: women and men are different beings; women should be subordinate in social life. Afraid that other philosophes was plotting against him and broke with them. Contribution to The Social Contract 1. Governments govern with the consent of the general will. 2. Popular sovereignty: Sovereignty lies in the hands of the people. The International Enlightenment Enlightenment Outside of France 1. The Scottish Enlightenment emphasized common sense and scientific reasoning. a. Led to the creation of the first public education system.

9 b. David Hume - became a central figure who emphasized skepticism and civic morality. c. Adam Smith - attacked laws and regulations that prevented trade and commerce in his An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. 2. The British North America Enlightenment great influenced by Scottish and English thinkers. a. Idea of checks and balances would later on influence the American government. i. American Enlightenment Leaders: Benjamin Franklin & Thomas Jefferson 3. The Enlightenment in German-speaking states. a. Immanuel Kant - greatest German philosopher i. Separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge. 4. The Northern European Enlightenment (Italy). a. Cesare Beccaria published On Crimes and Punishment in which he denounced the use of torture. Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere What is the Reading Revolution? A time period in Europe where literacy became more individual and silent and reading material was broad and diverse. The people read more book regarding the arts and sciences rather than religious and devotional books. Institutions and practices contributed to the spread of enlightened ideas: Salon - A regular meeting held by the upper class in; encouraged intellectual exchange of ideas on literature, science, and philosophy. Libraries - For those who could not afford books. + Coffeehouses, book clubs, debating societies, Masonic lodges, and newspapers

10 * The Enlightenment was accompanied by the rise of Rococo Art. Race and the Enlightenment Europeans believed that they are superior to barbaric peoples in Africa and the New World. Scientific racism stressed the inferior nature of other races which contributed to the growth of slavery. Some individuals was against slavery but only a minority. Enlightened Absolutism What is the Enlightened Absolutism? A term used to describe the rule of monarchs who adopted Enlightenment ideals of rationalism, progress, and tolerance. Frederick the Great of Prussia Believed more humane policies could strengthen the state. Allowed religious freedom (same for philosophical matters). Promoted education; improved schools and allowed scholars to publish their works. Abolished torture. Promoted reconstruction of agriculture and industry. Prussia became famous for their hard work and honesty. Maintained the social structure. Kept the serfs on his estates. Extended the privileges of the nobility Cameralism View that monarchy is the best form of government. Catherine the Great of Russian Killed Peter III and became Empress of Russia. I did not care about Peter, but I did care about the crown.

11 Greatly adored by the French philosophes. Catherine the Great had three main goals. 1: Continue westernizing Russia. Imported Western architects, musicians, and scholars. Patronized philosophes. Published Diderot s Encyclopedia (when the French government banned them). 2: Domestic reform Restricted practice of torture. Allowed limited religious toleration. Improved education and strengthen local government. 3: Territorial Expansion Takes control of Ukraine and the last descendants of the Mongols, the Crimean Tatars. Along with Prussia and Austria, they each compensate by taking a piece of polish territory. The Austrian Habsburgs Female Monarch: Maria Theresa Made reforms that strengthened the state. Church reform Limited papacy s influence. Eliminated religious holidays. Reduced number of monasteries. Administrative renovations Revamp the tax system; nobles were taxed. Improve agricultural population Reduced power of lords over serfs and (partially free) peasants. Joseph II became ruler. Abolished serfdom. Could use cash payments instead of paying through labor. Leopold II cancelled some of Joseph II s reforms.

12 Peasants had to do forced labor once again. Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism What is the Haskalah? The Jewish Enlightenment led by Moses Mendelssohn. Who is Moses Mendelssohn? A Jewish Enlightenment philosopher who advocated for their freedom and civil rights. Most monarch disliked the idea of the emancipation of the Jews (Like Frederick the Great and Catherine the Great).

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