Chapter 4: The Exchange of Ideas (Pg. 78)

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1 Chapter 4: The Exchange of Ideas (Pg. 78) Inquiry question: How did the Renaissance spark the growth and exchange of ideas across Europe???? Chapter Overview You will learn the influence that the exchange of ideas had on worldview by asking and answering questions regarding the impact of: 1. new scientific discoveries. 2. new thinking in leadership. 3. How powerful institutions changed. 4. The invention of the printing press Science: A New Way of Thinking I will: Investigate the that during the. Many of these were the result of a way of. Especially because they valued and. New Ideas and Views During the Renaissance the Scientific Method was developed as well as new ideas in the areas of: How Can Scientific Discoveries Shape People s Worldview? During the beginning of the Renaissance if people chose to study sciences such as,, and, they would read books written by scholars from Classical of civilizations. However people were NOT to ask, study the world, or do hands on. A Changing Attitude And The Scientific Method Attitudes towards the began to change as expanded the range of they read. The that placed on human encouraged people to and experiment. Developments in Astronomy Copernicus suggested the sun-centered universe which was confirmed by Galileo 1 of 11

2 Medicine and the Study of Anatomy Doctors had very accurate of the human and the causes of. Anatomy is the or study of the. Most remedies were based on, superstition,, or applying leeches. People with of remedies played an important role in the. During the Renaissance knowledge, particularly in and. Scientists and began to apply the method to make new discoveries about the body and how it. Understanding Anatomy During the Renaissance, was made for the of in many Italian cities. Andreas Vesalius, a would bodies in his lecture hall as his watched and. He authored a book called the of the human body which included and detailed. Math was Important To: like Kepler who used in their works. The Economy. As and commerce, knowledge of became to members of the class. Earlier civilizations contributed to Renaissance understanding of Math. The concept of was used in ancient and the system was refined by mathematicians. Development of Perspective Renaissance architect Filippo Brunelleschi the mathematical of. He used to show how the he was would look when they were. Chapter 4: Political and Religious Leadership (pg 88) 2 of 11

3 The for within the Italian citystates created among them. and as well as came to believe that was the. Strong leaders would bring and that would allow and the to. This posed the question. Who these be and how would they? Born into Leadership Civic encouraged citizens to in the of their state. Isabella D Este grew up in a family in the city-state of. She received a fine and, as a girl, met many and. When she was 16 she married the of. Their court became a centre of,, and the. Isabella s brilliant mind was much admired and she became known as. The Duke of Mantua was often away on, so Isabella ruled the in his. She many to her husband keeping him about the situation in Mantua. The Scientific Ruler (pg. 89) Just as Renaissance were using to learn about the, the 3 of 11

4 Florentine Niccolò Machiavelli was people and. His led him to ways of about and. Machiavelli his about the way to in his book. It became one of the most and texts ever. Even today scholars continue to argue about Machiavelli and his theories. Although Machiavelli was a humanist, some of his ideas might surprise you. Machiavellian Thoughts? (Pg 90) Not everyone appreciated Machiavelli s tell it like it is to. Along with Galileo s writings, The Prince was listed in the Church s Index of. Machiavelli s were in their time for two reasons: Reason 1: When it came to, Machiavelli did not think that ideas of and were. The only thing that was the running of the. The prince or could do anything as long as it was for the as a. Reason 2: Machiavelli described the as a of beings. It was a, that is, institution. Machiavelli was against, but it was not the of his thinking about and. 4 of 11

5 Changing Leadership in the Church (pg. 92) Some Church, and some parish, took of their to gain and for themselves and members of their family. Some bishops and cardinals their titles. Some priests did not their vow of but spent the Church s money on. People complained, and over the, the became and louder. Savonarola 1. Who was the monk who belonged to the Dominican order and what did he fight against? For a few years, Savonarola was the in Florence. 2. From the Church of San Marco, before as many as 3000 people, who was Savonarola accusing and what was he accusing him of?. His actions were to the of to the pope that all Roman Catholic take even today. 3. In 1497 under Savonalrola s direction citizens built a large fire. What was the name of the fire and what was burned during the fire? Savonarola that these things people s from. 5 of 11

6 Savonarola s continuous the pope and the Church in Rome, and his call for the of a to oppose the pope, led to his, that is, official exclusion from the Church. By then, the people of Florence were also tired of Savonarola s sermons and him. 4. What significant event happened to Savonarola in 1498? Martin Luther (pg. 93) Savonarola s criticisms result in any in the. But almost 20 years later,, a monk, took more action. 5. How was Luther influenced by humanist methods and what conclusions did he draw? Luther was by the of the Church and of the way it was. 6. Explain the method regarding how the Church was making money.. In, Luther nailed his criticizing the selling of on the Church door in. He challenged other to Church. The Ninety-Five Theses were and throughout. 7. What did Pope Leo X issue and how did Luther respond? 6 of 11

7 In 1521, Luther was called before the emperor at an Imperial Diet ( ) in the city of and, like, asked to give up his ideas. 8. How did Galileo and Luther differ in their response to being accused or heresy? What was the popes response?. Emperor Charles V declared Luther an who could be and as a result Luther went into. The Protestant Reformation (pg. 94) Like his Ninety-Five Theses, Luther s translation of the Bible reached an number of. They Luther when he with the Church. A new church was started in Europe the Church. Before long, Luther s spread all across. 9. The name of Luther and the people who followed him were called? 10. What would this time in history would become known as? Explain why it was given this name 7 of 11

8 The Catholic Counter-Reformation (pg 95) The Church much of its and because of the Protestant Reformation. 11. What was the name of the series of meetings called by Pope Paul III and what was examined? 12. What moment began as a result of the meetings called by Pope Paul III and what was the result?. New orders that on people to Catholicism were also during this time. 13.Who founded the most important order that was in change of converting people to Catholicism and what was the order called? 14. Jesuit missionaries were active amongst which first nations group in the early days of European settlement? 15. What did the Wendat call the missionaries and why were they given this name? 8 of 11

9 Chapter 4: The Spread of Ideas (Pg. 97) Inquiry Question How do ideas and knowledge spread? The Information Age The Renaissance was also an age in that there were so many new and so much new. The Renaissance began in and eventually spread through France, Spain, and as well as northern. Later, ideas also spread from the to Renaissance Europe. Spreading ideas and 500 years ago was very than it is today. At the beginning of the Renaissance, information was still spread by of. Gathering Great Minds Some merchants played an important role in the of and. In Florence, the Medici family established the Academy where humanist thinkers gathered to discuss ideas. Universities Many early taught at Italian universities. They shared their new ideas through with one another and through their writings. Some instructors, such as Vesalius at the University of Padua, were so that students came from across Europe to study with them. The students then went back to their own cities and their. Traveling Celebrities Famous Renaissance scientists, artists, and thinkers like Leonardo da Vinci and Erasmus were the of their day. They were in demand in and all over Europe. Everywhere Leonardo went, he set up a and younger artists. Erasmus taught at several universities and engaged in with all over Europe both in person and by letter. 9 of 11

10 Royal Courts Kings and queens were eager to attract and to their courts. The court of François 1 er (Francis I) of France became a centre of. He collected, Renaissance, and. He invited Leonardo da Vinci to his court after France invaded in. He provided Leonardo with a house and a very generous. The Printing Press: A New Technology If you lived in at the beginning of the, you would probably have been. Only the most people in society could read and write. Being meant that you needed to know or. Most books at that time were written in, the language of and the. And finally, unless you were very, you would never be able to a book. Johannes Gutenberg In about, everything changed. A German named developed a printing press that allowed books to be produced and. Using this new technology, printers could produce of books in the time it had once taken to make a copy. They were printed on paper, which was much than. By 1500, there were more than six books in print in Europe. Books allowed an of and in Europe on a that had been known before. Now that books were and more, middle-class people began to read,, and eventually about the exciting ideas of their time. 10 of 11

11 The Spread of Knowledge Instead of printing books in Latin, more books were printed in the, that is, the language that people spoke. The success of Luther s 1522 New Testament was based in part on existing demand for books and Bibles in German. Thinkers like made from the they wrote. This gave them the to to many and spreading their ideas. Instead of printing books in Latin, more books were printed in the, that is, the language that people spoke. The success of Luther s 1522 New Testament was based in part on existing demand for books and Bibles in German. Thinkers like made from the they wrote. This gave them the to to many and spreading their ideas. 11 of 11

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