The Enlightenment in Europe

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1 Name Date CHAPTER 22 Section 2 RETEACHING ACTIVITY The Enlightenment in Europe Multiple Choice Choose the best answer for each item. Write the letter of your answer in the blank. 1. The new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of the individual to solve problems was the a. Scientific Revolution. b. Enlightenment. c. Great Awakening. d. geocentric theory. 2. The willingness of people to hand over their rights to a ruler in exchange for law and order in society was called the a. scientific method. b. Magna Carta. c. Enlightenment. d. social contract. 3. The philosopher who believed that all people are born free and equal, with the rights to life, liberty, and property was a. John Locke. b. Thomas Hobbes. c. Galileo Galilei. d. Baron de Montesquieu. 4. The group of social critics in Enlightenment France were called a. satirists. b. philosophes. c. stoics. d. revolutionaries. 5. Brilliant French satirist who frequently targeted the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government was a. Thomas Hobbes. b. Baron de Montesquieu. c. Voltaire. d. John Locke. 6. An influential French writer who wrote that Power should be a check to power was a. Louis XIV. b. Voltaire. c. Thomas Hobbes. d. Baron de Montesquieu. 7. French philosophe Jean Jacques Rousseau believed that the best form of government would be a a. direct democracy. b. constitutional monarchy. c. dictatorship. d. republic. 8. Women s contributions to the Enlightenment included all of the following except a. urging women to enter maledominated fields. b. writing about the inequalities between men and women. c. running for office. d. holding social gatherings called salons for influential people. Enlightenment and Revolution 45

2 Name Date Glossary CHAPTER 22 Enlightenment and Revolution abuses Improper uses, misuses astronomy Study of the universe beyond the earth boycott Organized refusal to buy a certain good or participate in a certain action hypothesis Attempt to answer a question that needs to be proven or disproven intellectual Related to thinking or to the mind law of gravity Idea linking motion in the heavens with motion on the Earth and based on the principle that every object attracts every other object reformed Changed for the better repeal Take back a law serfdom State or condition of using workers as slaves vaccination Introduction of weakened or killed viruses or bacteria into the body to protect against a specific disease violated Went against AFTER YOU READ Terms and Names A. Write the term or name in each blank that best completes the meaning of the paragraph. Isaac Newton Many thinkers contributed to the significant changes in scientific thinking heliocentric theory known as the 1. In astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus first developed the idea that the earth revolved around the sun. This became Scientific Revolution known as the 2. It refuted the earth-centered view of geocentric theory the universe, know as the 3. A great pioneer in science Galileo Galilei at this time was 4. He described the law of gravity. Another significant figure was 5, who ended up having to recant his theories before a papal court. B. Write the letter of the name or term next to the description that explains it best. a. Mary Wollstonecraft b. John Locke c. Montesquieu d. Thomas Jefferson e. Voltaire 1. Philosopher who said people have natural rights 2. Thinker known for ideas about separation of powers 3. Writer who championed freedom of speech and freedom of religion 4. Writer who championed women s rights 5. Author of the Declaration of Independence CHAPTER 22 ENLIGHTENMENT AND REVOLUTION 213

3 Name Date AFTER YOU READ (cont.) CHAPTER 22 Enlightenment and Revolution Main Ideas 1. How did European exploration help lead the way to the Scientific Revolution? 2. Who were the philosophes, and what did they believe in? 3. What was one of Montesquieu s key ideas about government? 4. How did the arts change as a result of the Enlightenment? 5. How did the government of the United States reflect Enlightenment ideas? Thinking Critically Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. How was the Scientific Revolution related to the Enlightenment? 2. How did monarchs react to Enlightenment ideas? 214 CHAPTER 22 REVIEW

4 Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, Absolute Monarchs DOWN 1. the Great; HE modernized Russia 2. ', brutish, and short' = Hobbes description of life in the 'state of nature' 3. ' right' theory = how absolute monarchs justified their rule 5. Newton said the universe was ruled by them 6. this theory says the sun is the center; earth, etc. go around it 8. Revolution = no abs. monarchs for Eng. (among other things) 9. 'careful of nature, and a willingness to question accepted beliefs' = basis for Sci. Revltn. 11. ' contract' = what people enter into as basis for government 13. Church liked his version of earth/heaven; he said movt. in heavens = circular, on earth = straight lines 14. 'universe comprehended by science and ' = Enlightenment ideal 15. scientist who was particularly important as an inspiration for the Enlightenment 16. his ideas = beginning of scientific revolution, but got him in trouble with the Church 18. the Great; ruled Prussia 21. Diderot wrote/compiled it; Pope Clement said it should be burned by a priest 24. Maurice = African soldier for Rome; refused to kill Christians so put to death 26. Great Lisbon = happened on a Sunday, led to rebuilding city acc. to Enlight. ideas 27. the Great; SHE (also) modernized Russia ACROSS 4. Newton is famous for 'discovering' it 7. nickname for Louis XIV (2 words, no space) 10. era from mid-1600s to 1789 in Eur. when reforms based on reason were discussed/implemented 12. Alessandro = first Black head of state in 'modern' Europe 17. English king beheaded during the English Civil War 19. Galileo used to see moon, planets, etc. 20. 'state of ' = how people would be if all society's influences were gone 22. French king built Versailles ultimate abs. monarch 23. motto of the Enlightenment (3 words, no spaces) 24. 'I am the ' = famous saying of Louis XIV, could be a motto for absolute monarchs 25. this theory says the earth is the center; sun, stars, etc. go around it

5 THIS PAGE IS OPTIONAL. Quotes from and about the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and Absolute Monarchs in cryptogram puzzle form From Isaac Newton THIS PAGE IS OPTIONAL. From Thomas Hobbes THIS PAGE IS OPTIONAL. from Immanuel Kant

6 Name Date CHAPTER 22 BUILDING VOCABULARY Enlightenment and Revolution A. Matching Match the description in the second column with the term or name in the first column. Write the appropriate letter next to the word. 1. Galileo Galilei 2. Isaac Newton 3. Enlightenment 4. Catherine the Great 5. John Locke 6. Montesquieu 7. Voltaire 8. Mary Wollstonecraft a. English philosopher who proposed that a government s power comes from the consent of the citizens and that citizens have the right to rebel against unjust rulers b. Russian empress who was considered an enlightened despot c. Italian scientist who made astronomical observations that supported the theories of Copernicus d. early proponent of women s rights e. English scientist who discovered the law of gravity f. French philosophe who promoted freedom of speech g. French writer who proposed the ideas of separation of powers and checks and balances in government h. intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems B. Completion Select the term or name that best completes the sentence. salons enlightened despot social contract Declaration of Independence neoclassical checks and balances federal system Bill of Rights 1. Under the influence of the Enlightenment, the grand, ornate style in European art known as baroque gave way to a simple, elegant style that was based on classical Greek and Roman ideas and was called. 2. A form of government in which power is divided between national and state governments is a. 3. The document in which American colonists asserted their independence from Great Britain was the. 4. The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution are known as the. 5. In social gatherings called, wealthy hostesses of Paris helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment to educated Europeans. 6. Thomas Hobbes called the agreement by which people create a government the. C. Writing Write a paragraph explaining the following terms and how they are related. geocentric theory Scientific Revolution heliocentric theory scientific method Enlightenment and Revolution 29

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