The Byzantine Empire

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1 The Byzantine Empire

2 Preview This preview is designed to show students how the city of Constantinople thrived as a trading hub. This will help you understand why Constantinople became the capital of the Byzantine Empire

3 Preview You will participate in an activity to learn how an important trading site in the Mediterranean functioned during the Middle Ages. Each student will represent a trader from one of the 7 regions of the world and will have 7 tokens representing the goods from that region. You must exchange these for goods from other regions

4 Preview The object is to accumulate the greatest variety of goods- as many of the 7 colors of tokens as possible. The group with the greatest VARIETY (not quantity) will win.

5 Trading Rules All trading must take place in the hub Traders can only bring 1 token into the hub at a time. To reach the hub you must walk single file along the tape. Traders can trade for only one color of token while in the hub Once a trade is completed, a trader must return to his or her region to pick up another token before trading again Traders may not exchange tokens with members of their own group Traders may not travel to other regions

6 Time to Trade Trade with other regions You may work together to trade for as many different colors you want.

7 Activity Debrief Tally tokens and colors 1 person from each group report how many of each color they acquired. How did you feel during the activity? What did you like about trading? What was difficult about it? Was it easy to acquire different colors once you reached the trading hub? Explain. Where do you think one of the most important trading hubs was located during the Middle Ages?

8 Preview 6 Page 31 Classroom Experience Students were members of different groups Historical Connection Traders came from various regions of the world such as Africa, France and China

9 Preview 6 Page 31 Classroom Experience Students traded different colors of tokens Historical Connection Various goods were traded during the Middle Ages, such as ivory, wool and silk

10 Preview 6 Page 31 Classroom Experience Tokens had to be traded in the trading hub Historical Connection Many traders came to Constantinople to trade.

11 Preview 6 Page 31 Classroom Experience Students could only trade for one token at a time. Historical Connection Traders could carry only limited supplies of goods

12 Preview 6 Page 31 Classroom Experience Students walked along strips of tape to trade Historical Connection Traders traveled to Constantinople by land and water routes.

13 Preview 6 Page 31 Classroom Experience Groups finished the activity with a variety of token colors Historical Connection Traders brought new products to their homes after trading in Constantinople.

14 Introduction You will learn about the development of the Byzantine Empire and its political and religious traditions. Read 6.1on page 61 Look at the illustration on page 6.1 What do you see? What key place is indicated on the map? What might the buildings represent? What do you think the fence represents? You will use this map to learn about the development of the Byzantine Empire and its separate political and religious traditions.

15 Constantinople What do you see here? What types of physical features do you see? What buildings stand out? What do you think they are used for? What features protect this city from invaders? What allows people to reach this city easily? Why do you think this city was called a crossroad?

16 6.2 Constantinople 800 miles east of Rome Easy to defend surrounded by water on 3 sides Chain across the harbor for protection Crossroads of Europe and Asia Sea and overland routes connected the them More than 700 years Constantinople was the richest and most elegant city in the Mediterranean region Ivory, silk, furs and perfumes and other luxury goods were traded 1204 French Soldier said One could not believe there was so rich a city in all the world

17 6.2 Constantinople Home to around 1 million people Culture was Greek; traders and visitors spoke many languages Ships were in the harbor with good to trade Life was more advanced than in western Europe Sewer system Social services: hospitals, homes for elderly and orphanages Many people were impoverished Emperor gave bread to those who could not find work

18 6.2 Constantinople Almost everyone attended the chariot races at the stadium Hippodrome Blues and Greens fierce rivals chariot tams Sometimes caused deadly fighting 532 the 2 groups united in rebellion and destroyed much of Constantinople

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20 6.3 Reign of Justinian I What do you see here? Who stands out in this image? Why does he stand out? This is Justinian, a famous Byzantine ruler. What do you notice about the figures standing next to him? What roles do you think they played in his court? What does this image say about Justinian s Power?

21 6.3 Justinian I Emperor and his wife Theodora were attending chariot races Both the Blues and Greens were upset over the arrest of some of their members Blues and Greens rioted against Justinian Justinian and Theodora hid in the palace City was on fire Justinian s advisors wanted him to flee the city Theodora told him to stay and fight Justinian put down the revolt 30,000 people were killed in the fighting

22 6.3 Justinian I Constantinople laid in ruins Justinian wanted to rebuild Public works bridges, baths, parks, road and hospitals Churches Hagia Sophia today one of most famous buildings in the world Tried to reclaim some lost territory North Africa, Italy and Southeastern Spain

23 6.3 Justinian I Most famous for creating a system of law Made improvements to laws around Roman Empire Extended Women s property rights Justinian s Code basis for many legal codes in the western world Distrust and divisions plagued the imperial court Justinian s court was no exception

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25 6.4 Eastern Orthodox Church This structure was 1 st built during the reign of Justinian. What do you see? What is the mood like in this building? What types of activities might take place here? What aspects of the architecture are interesting? How high do you think the dome is? 180 feet 12 stories How does the size make you feel? What do you notice about the lighting? Why do you think light might be important in a church?

26 6.4 Eastern Orthodox Church Christianity was a foundation of their empire. Religious center as well as the seat of the government Constantinople Eastern Orthodox Church = Byzantine church orthodox = in agreement with right belief. Medieval Eastern Orthodox church was based on a set of beliefs that its leaders traced back to Jesus Christ and to the work of bishops.

27 6.4 Eastern Orthodox Church Role of the Church Emperor was a living representative of God and Jesus Church and state were combined into one Played a role in daily life Most people attended church regularly Religious sacraments were involved in stages of life Monasteries and convents cared for the poor and sick These institutions were supported by wealthy people and became quite powerful

28 6.4 Eastern Orthodox Church Church Hierarchy Rank in order of importance like Catholic clergy Emperor supreme authority Emperor chose the patriarch of Constantinople Patriarch did not claim authority over others like the pope does Orthodox priests serve under patriarch and other bishops Orthodox priests can marry Bishops could rise only from ranks of unmarried priests

29 6.4 Eastern Orthodox Church Liturgy and Prayers Orthodox church services were close to the Roman Catholic mass Sang and worship Conducted in Greek Prayed to saints Saint Basil promoted charity and reformed the liturgy Saint Cyril created Cyrillic alphabet which allowed scholars to translate the Bible for people in eastern Europe to read

30 6.4 Eastern Orthodox Church Architecture and Art Hagia Sophia model for many churches Base represents the earthly world and upon it rests the dome of heaven Rich decorations inside remind people what it would be like if we entered God s kingdom Art was used in services and prayers Icons usually painted on small wooden panels

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32 Analyzing Images You will now analyze objects and people that would be found in an Eastern Orthodox Church such as Hagia Sophia during Justinian s reign. You will get handout now. With a partner examine a placard Use details from your notes and your book to answer the question on the placard. Repeat the process until you have examined all 8 images

33 6.5 Conflict between East and West What do you see here? Describe the 2 men who are seated. What positions do you think they hold in Byzantine society? What do the two men on the right appear to be doing? Why might their actions upset many Christians?

34 6.5 Conflict Between East and West Medieval Europe and Byzantine Empire were united n Christianity Cultural, Political and religious differences brought the two parts of the old Roman Empire into conflict Eastern half had many cities, trade and wealth Western half had rural and agriculture and not nearly as wealthy West was influenced by Frankish and Germanic tribes Constantinople people spoke Greek In the west people spoke Latin

35 6.5 Conflict Between East and West Churches had most important conflict Popes were powerful in Western Europe claimed supreme religious authority over all Christians Emperors and patriarchs of the east resisted such claims

36 6.5 Conflict Between East and West Iconoclasm: Christians in East believed people were worshiping icons instead of what was on the painting Leo III Byzantine emperor banned the use of religious images in all Christian churches and homes Iconoclasm (icon smashing) led to destruction of much religious art Roman popes were angry

37 6.5 Conflict Between East and West Holy Roman Emperor: Empress Irene was ruler of Byzantine Empire People Leo III did not see her as a true ruler Leo crowned Charlemagne the king of the Franks as holy roman emperor

38 6.5 Conflict Between East and West Final Break: 1054 Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople wanted to reassert Byzantine control of the church Closed churches that worshiped the Western Rite Pope Leo IX was furious Cardinal Humbert marched up to the alter of Hagia Sophia and laid down a bull excommunicating Cerularius Cerularius excommunicated the cardinal Schism split between east and west

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