The Fall of Rome. Chapter 9, Section 2. Fall of the Roman Empire. (Pages ) 170 Chapter 9, Section 2

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1 Chapter 9, Section 2 The Fall of Rome (Pages ) Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: Why was the Roman Empire weakened? How would our world be different today if the Roman Empire had never existed? As you read pages in your textbook, complete the diagram to show the events that led up to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Fall of the Roman Empire 170 Chapter 9, Section 2

2 The Decline of Rome (pages ) Use the chart below to summarize the reforms made by Diocletian and Constantine. Diocletian s Reforms Constantine s Reforms Define or describe the following terms from this lesson. plague inflation barter reform Chapter 9, Section 2 171

3 Briefly describe the following place. Constantinople Define these academic vocabulary words from this lesson. decline authority How did Diocletian try to reverse the decline of Rome? Rome Falls (pages ) Glance quickly over the reading to find answers to the following questions. 1. What happened to the empire in A.D. 395? 2. Why did Germanic groups invade the empire? 172 Chapter 9, Section 2

4 3. What happened at the Battle of Adrianople? 4. Who was Alaric? 5. Who was Odoacer? Explain why this person is important. Theodosius Which event usually marks the fall of the Western Roman Empire? Chapter 9, Section 2 173

5 The Legacy of Rome (pages ) Use the chart below to take notes on the legacies of Rome. Use your completed chart to review key concepts from your reading. The Legacy of Rome Government Culture Religion Define these academic vocabulary words from this lesson. participate expand Use this term that you studied earlier in a sentence that reflects the term s meaning. republic (Chapter 8, Section 1) 174 Chapter 9, Section 2

6 Which aspects of the Roman Empire are reflected in present-day cultures? Now that you have read the section, write the answers to the questions that were included in Setting a Purpose for Reading at the beginning of the lesson. Why was the Roman Empire weakened? How would our world be different today if the Roman Empire had never existed? Chapter 9, Section 2 175

7 Name Date Class VOCABULARY ACTIVITY 9-2 The Fall of Rome: Words to Know Directions: Fill in each blank below with the term or name from the box that best completes the sentence. Words may be used more than once. Alaric barter Constantine Constantinople Diocletian inflation Odoacer plague reform Theodosius During the A.D. 200s, Rome s economy began to fall apart. A disease called a (1) killed one out of every ten people in the empire. Because less tax money was coming in, the Roman government began putting less gold in its coins, which led to (2), or rapidly increasing prices. People stopped using money and began to (3), or exchange goods without using money. In A.D. 284 a general named (4) became emperor and introduced (5), or political changes, to try to make things better. Another general named (6) became emperor in A.D He moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium, which became known as (7) but a new emperor named (8). After Constantine died, fighting broke out, gained control and ended the fighting. After his death, the Roman Empire was divided into two empires. The Western Roman Empire had its capital at Rome, and the Eastern Roman Empire had its capital at (9). In A.D. 410, the Visigoths under (10) captured Rome. Finally, in A.D. 476, a Germanic general, (11), overthrew the western emperor, Romulus Augustus. Building Academic Vocabulary Directions: Read the text above and then circle the letter of the word(s) that has the closest meaning to the boldfaced word in the following sentence. SECTION During the A.D. 200s, Rome s economy began to decline. A. improve B. worsen C. hold steady D. fail 61

8 SECTION 9-2 Name Date Class GUIDED READING ACTIVITY 9-2 The Fall of Rome Directions: Answering Questions Reading the section and completing the questions below will help you learn about the fall of Rome. Refer to your textbook to answer the questions. 1. Who killed the cruel emperor Commodus? 2. How did the Severan emperors stay in power? 3. Why did Roman coins decrease in value during the A.D. 200s? 4. What was the problem with using Germanic soldiers to fight the invading Persian armies? 5. What specific reform did Diocletian introduce to make it easier to rule the vast empire of Rome? 6. What three orders did Constantine issue in hopes of aiding the economy? 7. Constantine s new capital, Constantinople, was built on the site of what Greek city? 8. What important decision did the emperor Theodosius make in A.D. 395? 9. Name six different Germanic groups. 10. What did the Visigoth leader Alaric do in A.D. 410 that had not been accomplished in over 800 years? 64

9 Name Date Class GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY ACTIVITY 9 The Rhine River The Rhine is one of the longest rivers in Europe. From its beginning in the Alps to its mouth at the North Sea, it flows for 820 miles (1,319 km). For many centuries, the geography of the Rhine has influenced Europe s history. Its broad width and strong-flowing currents limited the movements of the ancient tribes who settled in northern and central Europe. For more than 400 years it formed much of the northern and eastern boundaries of the Roman Empire. A Roman Boundary Following the conquest of Gaul (France), Julius Caesar made the Rhine the boundary of Roman territory. Fortifications were built on the high hills overlooking the river. Soldiers posted there kept watch on the movements of tribes across the river. In later years, castles were built on a number of these hills, and many of those castles still stand today. Caesar also North Sea N W E 0 BELGIUM S NETHERLANDS LUXEMBOURG FRANCE kilometers The Rhine River 100 miles ordered a bridge to be built across the Rhine that would allow his army to enter Germany. After subduing the tribes in that region, he crossed back over the river. Then he ordered the bridge destroyed. The Rhine remained a border of the Roman Empire for the next four centuries. Around A.D. 9, during the reign of Caesar Augustus, a Roman army crossed the Rhine. The Romans suffered a major defeat at the hands of German tribes and were forced to retreat back across the river. In the early A.D. 400S, tribes crossed the Rhine when it froze. They invaded the Roman Empire and eventually helped cause the empire s collapse. ne ne Rhi Rhi Riv er Riv er SWITZERLAND GERMANY LIECHTENSTEIN ITALY CHAPTER 9 43

10 CHAPTER 9 Name Date Class GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY ACTIVITY 9 (continued) The Rhine River The Beginnings of River Commerce Trade along the river by ship had its beginnings during Roman times. The first trade along the Rhine involved the Roman navy. It supplied the needs of the soldiers stationed there. As time went on, the Rhine developed into a major avenue for transporting products. Because much of Europe was heavily forested, it was difficult to move goods by land. Later in European history, powerful nobles also took advantage of the Rhine s geography. They took control of portions of the valley and built castles on the hills overlooking the river and its key tributaries. From these strongholds they collected tolls on boats sailing through their lands, allowing the nobles to control trade in the area. Today the Rhine remains an important route for moving raw materials and manufactured goods. Directions: Answer the following questions in the spaces provided. 1. What characteristics of the Rhine limited the movements of tribes in northern and central Europe? 2. Why did the Rhine become a Roman boundary? 3. When and why did trade by ship begin along the Rhine? 4. In which direction does the Rhine flow? 5. In which countries does the Rhine begin and end? 6. Predicting How might European history have changed if the Rhine was a narrower river with a weaker current? 44

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