Medieval Italy After the fall of Rome, Italy and France became a series of kingdoms ruled by different German tribes mixed with the native Italian and

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1 Medieval Europe AD 476 is the accepted date for the transition for the Classical, or Ancient, World to the Medieval World. The fall of Rome resulted in three main cultural groups: The Byzantine Empire, Islamic Empires, and the Germanic West, or European Christianity.

2 Medieval Italy After the fall of Rome, Italy and France became a series of kingdoms ruled by different German tribes mixed with the native Italian and Gaulic peoples. In Rome itself, the ruler was the Pope and the region was called the Papal States. To the south were various other Italian kingdoms.

3 Medieval Italy To the North of the Rome, the Lombardy Kingdom covered most of Northern Italy through the Alps. To the Northwest of that was the Burgundian Kingdom, and to the North were the Ostrogoths, or Tuetons. Farther West, in France, were the Franks.

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5 Medieval France France was inhabited by Gauls who had been Romans for centuries. Their culture reflected this, but then became mixed with the Germanic tribes like the Visigoths, the Lombards, and then the Franks, who come from the North and settled in the West. A Frankish king named Clovis, of the Merovingian dynasty, consolidated power, then converted to Christianity in the late 400s.

6 Medieval France The Merovingian dynasty was eventually taken over by the Carolingian dynasty under the rule of Charles Martel who sought to keep a close relationship with Rome and the Church. At the request of Duke Odo of Aquitaine, he defeated a Muslim army at the Battle of Tours in 733.

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8 Medieval Scandinavia Scandinavia was made up of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. From these countries come the various tribes that we call Vikings The Vikings were not a single group of people, but rather different tribes that conquered different areas

9 Medieval Scandinavia The Danes, Germanic peoples from Denmark were conquerors mostly in Northeastern England. There were important to Western Society only insofar as they changed English culture by their incursions The Norsemen (from Norway) settled in Normandy France and eventually became kings of England.

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11 Medieval England After the Legions left, England was inhabited by Celts and ruled by Celtic kings and left-over Roman governors. Some of the Romans invited Germanic tribes over to England to work as mercenaries. This is known as the Anglo-Saxon invasion, though it was not necessarily a hostile invasion. Several Germanic tribes From Northern Germany: Anglos and Saxons From Denmark: Jutes The culture in England became a mix of German, Roman, and Celtic

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14 Christianity in England Had been Christian under the Romans, with Celtic Pagan influences Lost Christianity when the Germans arrived Was re-converted in the 500s by Augustine of Canterbury, a missionary sent my Roman church Became leaders in monasticism Christian men and women who vow to separate themselves from the world for the sake of prayer, purity Venerable Bede ( ) was an influential monk during this time Author of An Ecclesiastical History of the English People

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16 England had been fairly unified under Roman rule Not unified under Anglo-Saxon rule Each little region had its own ruler, its own culture Germanic tribes were similar, but not identical all over Europe at the time Some of the Scandinavian tribes came to be called Vikings, which was their name for the raiding and trading journeys they took around Europe The Vikings were Germanic tribesmen, like the Anglo-Saxons, Franks, Vandals, Visigoths, etc. They were all warrior-based cultures that placed great importance on a man s ability to fight

17 Across North-Western Europe, the Germanic tribes were mostly separate, following individual warrior kings who were the chief executor of the law, but did not have unlimited power as king. Kings had to prove they were worthy of being followed by acts of courage, like Beowulf, as well as providing gifts for their warriors.

18 Mostly unified under the first man to be able to call himself King of England Alfred the Great (r ) Was able to lead much of England against the Danes Still did not control all of the island, but was still a King of England.

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20 Alfred the Great October 899 In Old English, name means elf counsel which means wisdom or wise-cousel. King of Wessex (West Saxons) at first Defended Wessex against Vikings Led other regions to victory as well Became the most powerful king on the island First King of the West Saxons to style himself King of the Anglo-Saxons

21 Only English monarch to be called the Great Devout Christian Caused Christianity to be spread among the English during his reign Learned and merciful man Made sure learning and education was happening, and was careful to encourage written records of history during his time. Encouraged education, improved legal system, military structure and quality of life

22 Alfred fought against the Great Heathen Army under a Dane named Guthrum on the 12th of May, 878 at the Battle of Ethandune, now called Eddington. The Danes had been raiding for close to 50 years before this, but had only recently begun to conquer and settle in England. Many kings had lost battles to the Danes, including Alfred himself.

23 Alfred spent the winter before Ethandune hiding in the Somerset Marsh. The Danes favorite strategy was to occupy a fortified town and demand a payment to leave. This is called the Danegeld. Alfred finally refused to pay the Danegeld and called all of his men to meet at Egbert s Stone and prepare for battle.

24 Norman conquest of England January 1066 childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor died, leaving several heirs fighting for power. Harold Godwinson had the best claim, and was an Anglo-Saxon noble. Harald Hardrada was a Danish and Norwegian king who also claimed the throne of England. William of Normandy was related to him, and thought he was going to become king when Edward died.

25 Edward s Brother-in-law Harold Godwinson came to the throne early in 1066 In September 1066 Norwegian King Harald Hardrada invaded Northern England September 25 Harold defeated and killed Harald Days later, William landed in Southern England Harold marched south, leaving over half his army in the north October 14 Battle of Hastings William defeated and killed Harold

26 Norman conquest of England William faced rebellions after his conquest from the old Anglo-Saxon lords He was not secure on his throne until after 1072 Lands of resisting English elite were confiscated Some fled into exile Others simply lived in England without their traditional wealth He gave the confiscated lands to his followers These people became a new elite class

27 William built castles commanding military strongpoints throughout the land Norman French became the language of the elites Enfeoffed lands were places and estates that were to be held directly from the king Little alteration in the structure of government, and only minor differences in the overall structure of the culture.

28 Bayeux Tapestry In order to record the events, the Normans created something called the Bayeux Tapestry, which is a large cloth with (essentially) needlepoint. It tells the story with pictures, and is still an important piece of history.

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