AKA the Medieval Period with knights, castles and the Black Plague. 8/12/2012 1

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1 AKA the Medieval Period with knights, castles and the Black Plague. 8/12/2012 1

2 Begins in 5 th century AD (400s), after the fall of the Western Roman Empire Ends at the beginning of the Renaissance, or 15 th (1400s) century AD Time Frame 8/12/2012 Armored helmet of Anglo-Saxon king during Middle Ages 2

3 Location (400s) 8/12/2012 3

4 Why did Rome fall? Due to power struggles, political fallout and invading barbarians, the Western Roman Empire slowly crumbled, making way for new societies. The Eastern Roman Empire grew, however, religious changes and other factors led to the area to become the Byzantine Empire. 8/12/2012 The Byzantine Empire was mainly Christian, thus, religious art flourished during its rise. 4

5 Early Middle Ages Invasions, unlike what history tells us, were not just military expeditions. It was more of just the movement of people across Europe. Cultures infused and bloomed into new societies and ways of life. 8/12/2012 5

6 Power of Religion Powerful Roman families were dying out, and religion became more influential than politics. Islam, a newer religion, emerged from Northern Africa and Arabia. 8/12/2012 Medieval Muslims used geometric shapes and patterns to create stunning tile work on the walls of their places of worship. qw

7 Trade and Economy African-European trade ceases in the 5 th century. Trade with Asia increases over time Most goods are traded and produced locally around Europe 8/12/2012 7

8 Monasteries and abbeys popped up everywhere as Christianity, which was now called the Catholic Church, spread rapidly across Europe. The Vatican is founded and the Pope rules the Holy Roman Empire Monasticism 8/12/2012 8

9 The Role of Monasteries The men who joined monasteries, known as monks, not only committed their lives to religion, but acted as scholars, recording and teaching history. 8/12/2012 9

10 Charlemagne Charles the Great, aka Charlemagne, unified parts of France, northern Italy and Saxony. In 800, he creates the Carolingian Empire, the first Christian civilization. By 843, after his death, his grandchildren and greatgrandchildren breakup the empire due mainly to Viking attacks. 8/12/

11 Byzantine Art Byzantine Art marks the earliest European art in the Middle Ages. Basilicas were built as places of worship, with a cross shape floor plan. The interior was very ornate, a celebration of the importance of art and religion. 8/12/

12 Book of Kells Anglo-Saxon (British) and Irish-Celtic art can be seen in books. Illuminated manuscripts, such as in the Book of Kells, is a great example of how detailed and ornate these books can be. Each design was done by hand in every book. The Book of Kells is the four gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. 8/12/

13 High Middle Ages Society becomes hierarchal, with the implementation of Feudalism. Most lands are controlled by lords and knights, under control of a king. Some kings were also Popes, which is called papal monarchy. 8/12/

14 The Crusades As the Islamic religion spread, war enabled the Muslims to take over Jerusalem, sparking a war with Christians to take back the city. Religious war, between anyone, is devastating to the art world as many works of art from both sides are destroyed because they are considered pagan or unholy. Jerusalem went back and forth between the two sides throughout the Middle Ages. Krak des Chevaliers was a fortified castle (in what s now Syria) was built during the Crusades. 14

15 Intellectualism Philosophy surfaced as men began to study the teachings of Aristotle. Men found new ways to combine philosophy, theology and science, but many ideas were considered heresy. Reason and law were a big part of life during this time. 8/12/

16 Technology and Science Windmills Mechanical Clocks Lenses (for use in telescopes) Gunpowder (Chinese) Eyeglasses Weaponry 8/12/

17 In the 11 th century, most churches and monasteries modeled the architecture of Roman buildings. Improvements in glass-working lead to the making of large rose windows. Romanesque Architecture 8/12/

18 Romanesque Art Romanesque architecture used high relief sculpture, which sticks out far from the wall, but is still supported by it. The inner walls are decorated by fresco paintings, which are painted into wet plaster and allowed to dry. 8/12/

19 Gothic Architecture In the 12 th century, the architectural style of churches and cathedrals changed to the highly decorated Gothic style. Rib Vaults Flying Buttresses Stained glass windows 8/12/

20 The Difference Between 100 Years 8/12/

21 Stained Glass Windows 8/12/

22 Late Middle Ages Europe faced hardship as famine, due to temperature changes, raged across the country. The Black Plague wiped out 1/3 of the population from Doctors wore bird-like masks filled with herbs to protect themselves while treating victims of the plague. 8/12/

23 Hundred Years War Crusades ended around 1209 French kings tried to invade English territory, sparking Hundred Years War which lasted from the late 1300s to Though France actually won, it established England as a country. 8/12/2012 Joan of Arc, who claimed to be led by God, one several battles for France. But, she was burned at the stake for heresy, later being proclaimed innocent by the Catholic Church and called a martyr. 23

24 Protestant Reformation Because of the Great Schism, or division, between the aristocracy of the Catholic Church, many left to found their own sects of Christianity. Witch hunts across Europe claimed the lives of many because they were believed to be heretics. Some people actually were practicing witchcraft and other pagan rites. 8/12/2012 Age did not matter, witches could be children to elderly. And rumors caused a lot of innocent lives to be lost. 24

25 Education was still mainly for clergymen, however, the spread of books across Europe helped everyone learn about logic, grammar and rhetoric. Exploration of areas outside of Europe and Asia became possible due to the invention of ships that could hold up against the deepest parts of the ocean. Contrary to popular belief, many people had already realized Earth was round. Other Info 8/12/

26 Late Middle Ages Art Fabric art began to tell stories (narratives) about history. The Bayeux Tapestry, one of the most famous. 8/12/

27 Painting became highly symbolic during this time Many wooden altar pieces were created for churches by artists like Jan van Eyck. Painting 8/12/

28 Arnolfini and his Bride 8/12/

29 Civilization (1400s) 8/12/

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