CHARLEMAGNE AND THE NEW EUROPE

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1 CHARLEMAGNE AND THE NEW EUROPE

2 Rise of the Carolingians 7 th century CE = Frankish leaders were symbolic dukes were in charge Charles the Hammer Martel ( ) = first Carolingian Held important office Early 700s = everyone knows he is in charge Pepin III (ca ) = Martel s son/heir 751 = Pope Zachary (r ) declared Pepin King First partnership of the Church and a monarchy

3 Charlemagne and the New West Charlemagne ( ) = Pepin s son/heir Incredible military leader

4

5 Charlemagne and the New West Charlemagne ( ) = Pippin s son/heir Incredible military leader Use of the Danube River The Carolingian Renaissance Infrastructural improvements Recruited intellectuals/clergy Alcuin of York (ca ) John Scotus Erigena (ca. 810-ca. 877) Reform was expensive Forced tithes

6 Charlemagne and the New West Carolingian Government Unity through Christianity Reliance on counts Charlemagne s mobile palace Comparisons between Charlemagne and Constantine?

7

8 Charlemagne and the New West Carolingian Government Unity through Christianity Reliance on counts Charlemagne s mobile palace Comparisons between Charlemagne and Constantine? Protected Pope Leo III from Lombards 25 December 800 = Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor

9 Anglo-Saxon England King Offa of Mercia (ruled, ) Kingdom of Wessex 865 = Last kingdom standing after Viking raids King Alfred of Wessex (ruled, ) stopped Vikings Popular legal reforms 899 = Alfred dies after uniting southern England

10

11 Anglo-Saxon England King Offa of Mercia (ruled, ) Kingdom of Wessex 865 = Last kingdom standing after Viking raids King Alfred of Wessex (ruled, ) stopped Vikings Popular legal reforms 899 = Alfred dies after uniting southern England Vikings settled and were culturally absorbed

12 Nordic Scandinavia Not just Vikings... Amazing ship-builders Scandinavian society: Three classes: wealthy chiefs, free peasants, and slaves Emphasis on war and personal glory Shockingly emancipated women 8 th century = focus shifts from internal to external enemies Viking = raiding

13

14 Nordic Scandinavia Not just Vikings... Amazing ship-builders Scandinavian society: Three classes: wealthy chiefs, free peasants, and slaves Emphasis on war and personal glory Shockingly emancipated women 8 th century = focus shifts from internal to external enemies Viking = raiding More and more organization... Harold Fairhair ( ) of the Norwegians

15 The Slavs 6 th century = unique Slavic identity emerged 7 th century = Moravian Empire established

16

17 The Slavs 6 th century = unique Slavic identity emerged 7 th century = Moravian Empire established 864 = Louis the German conquered Moravia 895 = Magyars invaded Pannonia

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19 The Slavs 6 th century = unique Slavic identity emerged 7 th century = Moravian Empire established 864 = Louis the German conquered Moravia 895 = Magyars invaded Pannonia, split Slavic world In the north = Slavs of Poland, Russia, Ukraine In the south = Slavs of the Balkan states Magyars terrorized Germans for 50 years

20 Muslim Spain 756 = Abd al-rahman I ( ) = last Umayyad caliph After Islamic collapse, established caliphate Repressive ruled diverse territory Military buffer zones against Franks and Vikings Used Islam as a unifying force New trade goods: oranges, rice, sugarcane, cotton 9 th & 10 th centuries = Spain was extremely prosperous

21 Collapse of the Carolingian Empire By late 9 th century, Carolingians are surrounded

22

23 Collapse of the Carolingian Empire By late 9 th century, Carolingians are surrounded Charlemagne had depended heavily on aristocrats Growing wealth depended on expansion, and With less expansion, less plunder 814 = Charlemagne died Succeeded by Louis the Pious (ruled, ) 840 = Louis the Pious died Civil war between three sons 843 = Treaty of Verdun Split territory between Lothair, Louis the German, Charles the Bald

24

25 Collapse of the Carolingian Empire By late 9 th century, Carolingians are surrounded Charlemagne had depended heavily on aristocrats Growing wealth depended on expansion, and With less expansion, less plunder 814 = Charlemagne died Succeeded by Louis the Pious (ruled, ) 840 = Louis the Pious died Civil war between three sons 843 = Treaty of Verdun Split territory between Lothair, Louis the German, Charles the Bald Growing power in local leaders

26 A New France & Germany New royal families In France... Count of Paris halted the Vikings Alternated throne with Carolingian descendants 987 = Hugh Capet replaced Carolingians In the German territories... Split into five duchies Often elected non-carolingian King 919 = Duke Henry of Saxony (ruled, ) elected King Son, Otto the Great, crowned Emperor in 962 Political culture of the early middle ages: Roman administration + Christianity + Frankish Kingship

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