ROME(S) When does Byzantine history begin? Who else thinks of themselves as a legacy of Rome? Russians, Nazi s, America!

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1 ROME(S) Roman Independence Roman Republic Roman Imperialism and Empire {Punic Wars} Roman Civil Wars Roman Emperors Diocletian and Division {284 CE} Constantine and Edict of Milan {313 CE} Western Collapse {476 CE} When does Byzantine history begin? Who else thinks of themselves as a legacy of Rome? Russians, Nazi s, America!

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3 BYZANTIUM / EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE From to 1453 w/ conquest from Ottoman Turks Geography matters! Cultural Blending Roman, Greek, Hellenistic and Christian {not German} Justinian Corpus Juris Civilis Brief Conquests {pre-islam} Hagia Sophia Caeseropapism and Patriarchs LAW and Christianity become binding cement A Buffer Zone / Contraction

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9 WESTERN EUROPE POST-ROMAN EMPIRE Dark Age vs. Medieval Geography matters! Germans very un-roman The Franks Clovis in 486 CE Charles the Hammer Martel & the Battle of Tours in 732 CE Charlemagne as the 1 st Holy Roman Emperor 800 CE

10 WESTERN EUROPE POST-ROMAN EMPIRE Feudalism and Invasions Muslims, Magyars and Vikings! Feudal Contract: Lords and Vassals Chivalry, Tournaments and Castles The Manorial System a self-sufficient world

11 A. Main Idea: Without powerful secular governments to check their power and because the majority of Europe had been converted to Christianity by the end of Charlemagne s lifetime,

12 B. As Christianity spread, two original churches were established and still exist today: 1. the lead by Popes 2. the (Constantinople) centered in Rome, Italy Christianity centered in Greece led by 5 patriarchs who share power, but who are under the authority of the Byzantine emperor from 300s to 1453 CE

13 C. The Roman Catholic Church & Medieval Life 1. It is our task with the aid of divine goodness, to defend the Holy Church of Christ everywhere...and to strengthen it within through the knowledge of the Catholic (universal) faith Charlemagne 2. from the time of the 1 st apostles, Christian have been a. pagans are non-christians

14 C. The Roman Catholic Church and Medieval Life 3. every Medieval manor included a church with a a. some contained remains of martyrs and sometimes saints b. all collected a a tax collected by the Church

15 C. The Roman Catholic Church and Medieval Life 4. the parish priest a. most immediate contact Christians had with the Church b. what the priests said, people believed i. c. provided Heaven) i. the sacred rights of the Church the Bible for themselves necessary for salvation (going to d. conducted marriages, baptized people, buried the dead in sacred ground d. priests were the only educated people in Medieval Europe

16 How is the priest supposed to lead his followers? Wyd was his parisshe, and houses fer asonder, But he ne lefte nat, for reyn ne thonder, In siknesse nor in meschief to visite The ferreste in his parisshe, muche and lite, Upon his feet, and in his hand a staf. This noble ensample to his sheep he yaf, That first he wroghte, and afterward he taughte. Wide was his parish, houses far asunder, But never did he fail, for rain or thunder, In sickness, or in sin, or any state, To visit the farthest, regardless their financial state, Going by foot, and in his hand, a stave. This fine example to his flock he gave, That first he wrought and afterwards he taught

17 D. Monks and Nuns 1. monks live in 2. nuns live in a. some wanted to be there, many did not (remember, there were no prisons in Medieval times

18 D. Monks and Nuns 3. a. from Benedict, a monk from Monte Cassino, Italy in 530 CE b. a set of rules that all monks and nuns had to follow (3 vows) i. vow of obedience to abbot and abbess ii. vow of poverty iii. vow of chastity iv. sometimes monks and nuns would take a vow of silence Question: Why would these three vows be important for being a good monk/nun? So one focus on religious duties rather than things of this world

19 D. Monks and Nuns 4. monasteries and convents were the a. monks and nuns hand-copied important books of ancient learning 5. many become missionaries themselves ex. St. Patrick who establishes the Church of Ireland

20 E. The Power of the Roman Catholic Church Grows 1. the Roman Catholic Church becomes the most powerful religious and secular force in Medieval Europe a. = worldly 2. popes claim authority to rule over ALL Christians (including those in the eastern Byzantine Empire) 3. bishops and priests are appointed to feudal kingdoms because they are the only ones with education in

21 E. The Power of the Roman Catholic Church Grows 4. The Roots of the RCC s Power a. Medieval Christians believed without the sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church b. only the Roman Catholic Church could give these sacraments c. ergo (thus) the Roman Catholic Church has power over all Christian souls (now that s power)

22 E. The Power of the Roman Catholic Church Grows 5. the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox (Byzantine) Church had a. cannon laws are laws that govern matters of the Church b. damnation in hell! c. when someone is denied sacraments = eternal when a pope excommunicates an entire kingdom!!! Question: Which of these laws, excommunication or an interdict, gave members of the Roman Catholic Church and the popes more power? Why? Interdict; forces even powerful kings to submit to RCC s power

23 F. Reforming the Roman Catholic Church 1. Power corrupts. Absolute power corrupts absolutely. :

24 F. Reforming the Roman Catholic Church 2. the wealthier and more powerful the Roman Catholic Church gets, the more corrupt some become 3. a. no marriage for priests b. no selling of Church offices (simony) c. called for Church officials to appoint priests and bishops instead of laymen (kings and lords)

25 F. Reforming the Roman Catholic Church 4. traveling monks who fight Church corruption and heresy a. Francis Assisi who later becomes a Saint b. the Franciscans and Dominicans

26 G. 1. hatred of Judaism and Jews in general 2. though Jews became influential advisors in many courts of lords, kings, and even the church, they were often used as a scapegoat in times of trouble a. a, though they probably are not the cause

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