1 Name: Date: Block: Nation States: England and France The Development of Nation-States in Europe During the Middle Ages invasions by the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, Vikings, and Mongols disrupted social, economic and political order of Europe. The Angles and Saxons moved to England from continental Europe. The Magyars migrated from Central Asia to Hungary and the Vikings migrated from Scandinavia to Russia. The invaders caused havoc all over Europe, which will lead to the decline of trade and travel because of safety, and the decline of cities and towns. Despite the negative impact of the invasions, they did reinforce the feudal system. Manors and castles provided protection from invaders which lead to the strengthening of European monarchies. Monarchies in Europe grew in strength because they consolidated power and formed nation-states. Four nation states that were formed during this time are now known as England, France, Spain, and Russia. What is a nation-state?
2 Bienvenue en France! While you are visiting France you will be meeting three people. First, read about the people and then complete the following. 1. Charlemagne choose 4 great accomplishments or noteworthy facts about him and create a short cartoon with captions to help you remember him! 2. Joan of Arc give the pictures captions based on what is happening in the picture. Your answers should come from the story! 3. Hugh Capet write a summary of what he did for France! 4. Philip II write a summary of what he did for France!
3 F R A N C E Joan of Arc Hugh Capet Philip II
5 Joan of Arc Joan of Arc, a patron saint of France and a national heroine, led the resistance to the English invasion of France in the Hundred Years War. When Joan was about 12 years old, she began hearing voices of St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret believing them to have been sent by God. These voices told her that it was her divine mission to free her country from the English and help the dauphin (King s eldest son) gain the French throne. They told her to cut her hair, dress in man's uniform and to pick up the arms. Joan went to fight in the Hundred Years War and was eventually captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English in The English, in turn, handed her over to the church s court to be tried for witchcraft and heresy. Much was made of her persistence on wearing male clothing. She was told that for a woman to wear men's clothing was a crime against God. Her determination to continue wearing it was seen as defiance and finally sealed her fate. Joan was convicted after a fourteen-month interrogation and on May 30, 1431 she was burned at the stake in a marketplace. She was nineteen years old. Charles VII made no attempt to come to her rescue. In 1456 a second trial was held and she was pronounced innocent of the charges against her. And in 1920, Joan was canonized by Pope Benedict XV. To be canonized means that she was declared a Saint by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Saint Joan of Arc is one of the most popular saints of the Roman Catholic Church.
6 Hugh Capet The kings of France, like those of England, looked for ways to increase their power. After the breakup of Charlemagne s empire, French counts and dukes ruled their lands independently under the feudal system. By the year 1000, France was divided into about 30 feudal territories. In 987, the last member of the Carolingian family Louis the Sluggard died, (remember, Charlemagne was the first member of the Carolingian Dynasty). Hugh Capet (kuh-pay), an undistinguished duke from the middle of France, succeeded Louis the Sluggard as King of France. The Capet family ruled only a small territory, but at its heart stood Paris. Hugh Capet began the Capetian dynasty of French kings that ruled France from 987 to The Capetian dynasty expanded their control over most of France. Hugh Capet, his son, and his grandson all were weak rulers, but time and geography favored the Capetians. Their territory, though small, sat astride important trade routes in northern France. For 200 years, Capetian kings tightened their grip on this strategic area. The power of the king gradually spread outward from Paris. Eventually, the growth of royal power would unite France.
7 Charlemagne Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great, was a medieval emperor who ruled much of Western Europe from 768 to 814. In 771, Charlemagne became king of the Franks (a Germanic tribe in present-day Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and western Germany). He embarked on a mission to unite all Germanic peoples into one kingdom, and convert his subjects to Christianity. A skilled military strategist, he spent much of his reign engaged in warfare in order to accomplish his goals. In 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans, or Holy Roman Emperor. In this role, he encouraged the Carolingian Renaissance, a cultural and intellectual revival in Europe. When he died in 814, Charlemagne s empire encompassed much of Western Europe, and he had also ensured the survival of Christianity in the West. Today, Charlemagne is referred to by some as the father of Europe. Charlemagne was born around 742, the son of Bertrada of Laon and Pepin the Short, who became king of the Franks in 751. Charlemagne s grandfather was Charles Martel, or Charles the Hammer (known for the victory against the Moors at the Battle of Tours). Once in power, Charlemagne sought to unite all the Germanic peoples into one kingdom, and convert his subjects to Christianity. In order to carry out this mission, he spent the majority of his reign engaged in military campaigns. Soon after becoming king, he conquered present-day northern Italy, modern-day Austria and Hungary, and Bavaria, among others. Charlemagne also waged a bloody, three-decades-long series of battles against the Saxons, a Germanic tribe of pagan worshippers, and earned a reputation for ruthlessness. In 782 at the Massacre of Verden, Charlemagne reportedly ordered the slaughter of some 4,500 Saxons. He
8 eventually forced the Saxons to convert to Christianity, and declared that anyone who didn t get baptized or follow other Christian traditions be put to death. In his personal life, Charlemagne had multiple wives and mistresses and perhaps as many as 18 children. He was reportedly a devoted father, who encouraged his children s education. He allegedly loved his daughters so much that he prohibited them from marrying while he was alive. Einhard, a Frankish scholar and contemporary of Charlemagne, wrote a biography of the emperor after his death. In the work, titled Vita Karoli Magni (Life of Charles the Great), he described Charlemagne as broad and strong in the form of his body and exceptionally tall without, however, exceeding an appropriate measure His appearance was impressive whether he was sitting or standing despite having a neck that was fat and too short, and a large belly. In his role as a zealous defender of Christianity, Charlemagne gave money and land to the Christian church and protected the popes. As a way to acknowledge Charlemagne s power and reinforce his relationship with the church, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans on December 25, 800, at St. Peter s Basilica in Rome. As emperor, Charlemagne proved to be a talented diplomat and able administrator of the vast area he controlled. He promoted education and encouraged the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of renewed emphasis on scholarship and culture. He instituted economic and religious reforms, and was a driving force behind the standardized form of writing that later became a basis for modern European printed alphabets. Charlemagne ruled from a number of cities and palaces, but spent significant time in Aachen (a city in modern-day Germany). His palace there included a school, for which he recruited the best teachers in the land. In addition to learning, Charlemagne was interested in athletic pursuits. Known to be highly energetic, he enjoyed hunting, horseback riding and swimming. Aachen held particular appeal for him due to its therapeutic warm springs. According to Einhard, Charlemagne was in good health until the final four years of his life, when he often suffered from fevers and acquired a limp. However, as the biographer notes, Even at this time he followed his own counsel rather than the advice of the doctors, whom he very nearly hated, because they advised him to give up roasted meat, which he loved, and to restrict himself to boiled meat instead. In 813, Charlemagne crowned his son Louis the Pious ( ), king of Aquitaine, as co-emperor. Louis became sole emperor when Charlemagne died in January 814, ending his reign of more than four decades. At the time of his death, his empire encompassed much of Western Europe.
9 Philip II One of the most powerful Capetians was Philip II, who ruled from Philip II watched his father, lose land to Henry II of England. After Philip II became King in 1180, he had little success against Henry II or Henry s son Richard the Lion-Hearted. However, when King John seized the English throne, it was another matter. Philip II seized Normandy from King John in 1204 and within two years gained other territories. By the end of Philip s reign he had tripled the lands under his direct control. For the first time, a French king had become more powerful than any of his vassals. Philip II not only wanted more land, but he also wanted a stronger central government. He established royal officials called bailiffs. He sent these bailiffs to every district in the Kingdom to preside over the king s courts and collect the king s taxes.
10 Ello Chap! Welcome to England! While you are visiting the British Isles, please take some time to check out some important events in English history! After you read each section, check your notes and see what concept you are trying to identify and answer any questions with that concept!
11 Explain the impact of the Magna Carta on the King. Explain the development of English Common Law. What is the function of Parliament?
12 What are William the Conqueror s major accomplishments based on his puzzle? Write them in the arrow. Describe the Hundred Years War in 20 words or less! Use the images to the right and left to describe what the Hundred Years War did for England and France. Go English France! Pride!
13 In January of 1066, a man named Edward the Confessor (who was a descendent of the Anglo-Saxans) died without leaving an heir to his throne. Edward was my cousin, so naturally I claimed the right to the English crown. So I invaded England (I was living in France, in a place called Normandy). After the invasion, I fought in a battle against my rival (Harold Godwinson) and on October 14, 1066 I defeated Harold in a battled called The Battle of Hastings. After winning at the Hastings I declared all of England mine and those who supported Harold before all lost their lands. I then redistributed land to my fellow Normans (about 200 of them). A lot of people also know me for building the Tower of London located on the Thames (pronounced, Tems) River. Hi, my name is William the Conqueror, but my friends just call me William.
14 English Judge who determines verdicts of cases. Verdict (decision or ruling in a court case) English Common Law Henry II of England, ruled England from 1154 to He strengthened the royal courts of justice by sending royal judges to every part of England at least once a year. They collected taxes, settled lawsuits, and punished crimes. Henry also introduced the use of the jury in English courts. A jury in medieval England was a group of loyal people usually 12 neighbors of the accused who answered a royal judge s questions about the facts of the case. Jury trials became a popular means of settling disputes. Only the king s courts were allowed to conduct them. Over the centuries, case by case, the rulings of England s royal judges formed a unified body of law that became known as common law. Today these principles of English common law are the basis for law in many English-speaking countries, including the United States.
15 M A G N A C A R T A King John signing the Magna Carta on June 15, 1215 On June 15, 1215, consenting to the demands of 40 rebellious barons, King John affixed his seal to Magna Carta. By doing so he attempted to avoid a civil war. Magna Carta was written by a group of 13th century barons to protect their rights and property against a tyrannical king. It is concerned with many practical matters and specific grievances relevant to the feudal system under which they lived. The interests of the common man were hardly apparent in the minds of the men who brokered the agreement. AFTER THE MAGNA CARTA BEFORE THE MAGNA CARTA
16 Hundred Years War VS. The Hundred Years War was a war between England and France (fought on French soil) that lasted from And by 1453 the French finally drove out the English! For France, this war meant loss of lives, property, and money; but it also raised the prestige of the French monarchy. It also gave both nations a feeling of nationalism and saw each nation s leader as fighting for the glory of the country. After the war, England suffered a period of internal turmoil (known as the War of the Roses) in which two noble houses fought for the English throne. Despite this turmoil, the war was responsible for strengthening the power of the English Parliament (legislative body). This can be attributed to the fact that the King had to ask Parliament 27 times for new taxes in order to find the war! It s from this that Parliament s power of the purse becomes established!
17 In 1295, English King Edward I needed to raise taxes for a war against the French. Edward summoned two wealthy citizens (known as burgesses) from each borough and two knights from every county to serve as Parliament, or a legislative group. In November 1295, this group met together at West Minster in London. Over the next 100 years, the king called the knights and burgesses to London anytime a new tax was needed. Two groups gradually formed and met separately House of Commons and House of Lords. As time goes by, Parliament became stronger and stronger an d provided a check on the monarch s power! Parliament
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