Nomads of the Asian Steppe

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1 THE MONGOLS

2 Nomads of the Asian Steppe Steppe = a vast belt of dry grassland across Eurasia Provided a land trade route Home to nomads who swept into cities to plunder, loot & conquer

3 Pastoralists = herded and domesticated animals Clans = groups of people who have a common ancestor Mongol tribes were a loosely organized clans until Genghis Khan united them Practically lived on horseback Nomadic Way of Life

4 Rise of the Mongols Clans of Mongols terrorized Asian, Middle Eastern, and European cities Settled people lived in fear of Mongol raids Mongols employed superior military skills, deployed fighters quickly, and attacked efficiently against opponents. While the Mongols were brutal in their conquest, they were religiously tolerant and facilitated cultural exchanges

5 Genghis Khan Unites the Mongols, 1206 Genghis Khan = Universal Ruler Khan = king, commander, ruler, chief, etc. He was one of the greatest conquerors in the history of the world Launched a campaign of terror across Asia

6 Temüjin Named Temüjin (born 1162) His father was the head of their clan Traditional stories believe that he was born grasping a blood clot in his fist, which is a sign he was destined to become a great leader The Onon River, Mongolia, where Temüjin grew up (autumn)

7 Temüjin He was given away in an arranged marriage to Börte, a girl from a nearby tribe Married her when he was 16 Lived the hard life of a poor nomad Scavenging for food Tribal warfare Raids

8 Temüjin Börte gave birth to 4 sons and 5 daughters Temüjin had several consorts and many children (unknown amount), but only Börte was his true wife and her children were Temüjin s heirs (successors) Temüjin began to ally himself politically and through marriage to many other clans throughout central Asia to create an empire He attacked other clans who would not unite with him In 1186, Temüjin was elected khan of the Mongols

9 Temüjin Brilliant organizer Gifted strategist Adopted new weapons and technologies, ex. Stirrups Stirrups gave the Mongols better stability and versatility Used cruelty as a weapon = psychological warfare Kill an entire city First leader to unite all of the Mongol clans under a single leader

10 Temüjin Genghis Khan Temüjin used merit as a way for his followers to rise in ranks (not by birthright or family ties, as was tradition) He promised civilians and soldiers they could take wealth as spoils from future raids/wars He didn t destroy whole tribes He adopted them into his family This helped tribes become loyal to him By 1206 he had united all of the tribes into a single unit called the Mongols Became known as Genghis Khan

11

12 Genghis, the Tolerant Genghis was religiously tolerant of every faith except for Muslim and Jewish dietary practices and circumcision He consulted Buddhist monks, Christian missionaries, Muslims, and Taoist monks He wanted to learn philosophies and moral lessons from many faiths to be a great ruler

13 Genghis, the Conqueror Genghis next target was the Xia Dynasty Conquered Then the Jin Dynasty Conquered Genghis entering into Zhongdu (modern-day Beijing)

14 Genghis, the Conqueror After Genghis Khan conquered Northern China, he swept into the Middle East Whole Muslim populations were slaughtered until they finally sacked Baghdad in 1258 Result = the Golden Age of Islam began to decline

15 Genghis, the Conqueror After he conquered Baghdad, he and his massive armies swept through Russia and Eastern Europe He brought the Silk Road under one cohesive ruling system

16 Genghis Khan Genghis knew his sons would destroy each other for power He divided his empire among his sons, and his third son Ögedei was proclaimed Genghis heir to the khanate (throne)

17 Genghis Death Genghis died in 1227 Unsure cause of death Fall from a horse Injured in battle Illness Murdered Buried in Mongolia somewhere close to the Onon River Genghis Khan s mausoleum not his actual burial site

18 Legacy Genghis left behind a massive army Click Here to see an interactive map of his empire's growth Genghis created the largest empire in the entire history of mankind Encouraged religious tolerance, meritocracy, and adopted the Uyghur script as the Mongolian writing system (lasted until the 1800s)

19 The Mongol Peace (Pax Mongolica), 1227 mid-1300 s Regional stability increased trade along the Silk Road Set up a postal system (horse riders carried messages to stations along the Silk Road) Cultural diffusion between Asia & Europe: Ideas, Inventions, Technology, Trade & Culture Negative effects Spread of Disease (Black Plague) along trade routes Silk Road

20 THE SILK ROAD

21 Mongols Conquer Russia 1240 = the Mongols attacked & destroyed Kiev The Khanate of the Golden Horde would control Russia for 200 years Due to the total destruction of Kiev, Russian princes agreed to cooperate with the Mongol khans & retained local control Russians could follow their own customs as long as they didn t rebel against the Mongols

22 Influence of the Golden Horde Results of the Mongol invasions: 1. Isolated Russia from western Europe during the Renaissance 2. With Kiev destroyed: - Moscow (located on 3 rivers) became the new center of trade, power, & wealth in Russia - Strong centralized government began to develop 3. A system of serfdom and peasantry developed 4. Russians were allowed to trade and travel from one end of the empire to the other

23 Kublai Khan Kublai was Genghis Khan s grandson He learned a lot from his grandfather before Genghis died Ögedei Khan gave Kublai a huge estate to rule over Kublai was attracted to the Chinese culture and learned about Buddhism and Daoism

24 Kublai Khan Kublai Khan completed the conquering of China by1279 He moved capital to Beijing (1271) established Yuan dynasty Became the first Emperor of the Yuan dynasty organized his court by hierarchy, social, & political status The Yuan was the only foreign dynasty to rule all of China

25 Marco Polo A young Venetian trader, Marco Polo traveled to Asia with his family, learning many languages Marco was a visitor in Kublai Khan s court before being hired by government for 17 years Kublai Khan believed that foreigners were more trustworthy & loyal than the Chinese He believed that Mongols and foreigners had no local loyalties

26 Marco Polo After nearly 25 years, the Polos returned to Venice, Italy. Their family failed to recognize them Marco joined a local war & was captured & imprisoned During his imprisonment, a fellow prisoner recorded his 25 year Asian adventure in the Adventures of Marco Polo

27 Chinese Overthrew the Mongols After Kublai Khan s death in1294, Mongol rule began to weaken because of internal struggles amongst family members Rebellions, fueled by famine, flood, & disease, finally overthrew the Yuan dynasty (1368)

28 The 4 Khanates

29 Impact of the Mongolian Empire 1) Created largest unified land empire in history in less than 50 years 2) Conquered eastwards to Russia & Poland, west to China, & south to India 3) Imposed stability and order across Eurasia making caravan routes & travel safe 4) First foreign group to control China 5) Failed to conquer Japan after a typhoon or kamikaze destroyed the large invasion force 6) Technological innovations spread from China to Europe

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