World Civilizations. The Global Experience. Chapter. Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe. AP Seventh Edition

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1 World Civilizations The Global Experience AP Seventh Edition Chapter 10 Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

2 Figure 10.1 This 15th-century miniature shows Russia s King Vladimir I being baptized in Cherson in the year 988.

3 Chapter Overview I. Civilization in Eastern Europe II. The Byzantine Empire III.The Split Between Eastern and Western Christianity IV.The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe V. The Emergence of Kievan Rus'

4 TIMELINE 100 C.E. to 1400 C.E.

5 Civilization in Eastern Europe The Power of the Byzantine Empire Emperor Constantine 4th century C.E., Constantinople Empire divided Capitals at Rome and Constantinople Greek language official from 6th century Interregional trading hub Christianity

6 The Byzantine Empire Justinian's Achievements Justinian Attempts reconquest of Italy Slavs, Persians attack from east Building projects Hagia Sophia Legal codification Belisarius Gain temporary capital, Ravenna

7 Map 10.1 The Byzantine Empire Under Justinian Justinian s ambitious expansion exhausted his treasury, and the empire had lost all its holdings outside the northeastern Mediterranean within 50 years after his death.

8 Figure 10.2 Dazzling mosaics from the early period of the Byzantine empire illustrate some of the highest achievements of Byzantine religious art. This mosaic features a rather militant Christ the Redeemer. World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP Seventh Edition

9 The Byzantine Empire Arab Pressure and the Empire's Defenses Center of empire shifts to east Constant external threats Arab Muslims Greek fire Bulgars Defeated by Basil II, 11th century

10 Women and Power in Byzantium Istanbul, St. Sophia, Mosaic in the South Tribune: Christ with the Empress Zoë, who is presenting him with a scroll listing her donations to the church, and her consort, Monomachus, who is offering him a purse containing gold coins.

11 The Byzantine Empire Byzantine Society and Politics Empress Theodora Emperors resemble Chinese rulers Court ritual Head of church and state Sophisticated bureaucracy Open to all classes Provincial governors

12 The Byzantine Empire Byzantine Society and Politics Economic control Regulation of food prices, trade Silk production Trade network Asia, Russia, Scandinavia, Europe, Africa Arts Creativity in architecture Icons

13 Figure 10.3 A view of the interior of the Hagia Sophia, or St. Sophia the Church of Holy Wisdom in what is today the city of Istanbul. This magnificent church was built C.E. under the reign of the Emperor Justinian.

14 The Split Between Eastern and Western Christianity The Schism Separate paths Patriarch Michael 1054, attacks Catholic practice Mutual excommunication Differences in ideas of scholarship

15 Figure 10.4 Just as theologians through the centuries have worked to understand Christ s message, so too have artists struggled to capture his image. This powerful mosaic of Christ at the Church of Chora in Istanbul was created in the first part of the 14th century. Notice the difference between this image and the images of Christ common in Western Christianity, which place more emphasis on suffering and less on divine majesty.

16 Figure 10.5 The Byzantine empire developed a distinctively stylized religious art, adapted from earlier Roman painting styles and conveying the solemnity of the holy figures of the faith. This illustration from a 14th-century manuscript features the holy women at the sepulchre of Christ.

17 The Split Between Eastern and Western Christianity The Empire's Decline Period of decline from 11th century Seljuk Turks Take most of Asian provinces 1071, Manzikert Byzantine defeat Slavic states emerge

18 The Split Between Eastern and Western Christianity The Empire's Decline Appeal to West brings crusaders 1204, Venetian crusaders sack Constantinople 1453, Constantinople taken by Ottoman Turks 1461, empire gone

19 Map 10.2 The Byzantine Empire, The Byzantine empire went from a major to a minor power in the period portrayed on this map. After the Turkish defeat at Manzikert in 1071, the Byzantines maintained effective control of only a small fringe of Anatolia. In the Balkans, new Serbian, Bulgarian, and Hungarian states grew powerful, despite the Byzantines claim to control of the region.

20 Eastern and Western Europe: The Problem of Boundaries Difficult border area between East and West Defined by mainstream culture Orthodox vs. Catholic territories Defined by politics Regional kingdoms Defined by economic structure Trade patterns did not unite Intensified divisions

21 The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe Cyril, Methodius to Slavs Cyrillic script The East Central Borderlands Competition from Catholics and Orthodox Greeks Catholics Czechs, Hungary, Poland Regional monarchies prevail Jews from western Europe

22 Map 10.3 East European Kingdoms and Slavic Expansion c Beginning around the 5th century C.E., the Slavs moved in all directions from their lands around the Pripet River in what is today Ukraine and Belarus. Their migrations took them from the Baltic Sea to the Oder River and down to the Adriatic and Aegean seas. The arrival of the Hungarians in the 9th and 10th centuries prevented the Slavs from unifying. The arrival of the Hungarians in the 9th and 10th centuries complicated the Slavic holdings, tending to separate Russians and Slavs in the Balkans. Still, the various Salvic peoples dominated a vast territory in eastern Europe.

23 The Emergence of Kievan Rus' New Patterns of Trade Slavs from Asia Iron working, extend agriculture Mix with earlier populations Family tribes, villages Kingdoms Animistic

24 The Emergence of Kievan Rus' New Patterns of Trade 6th, 7th centuries Scandinavian merchants Trade between Byzantines and the North c. 855, monarchy under Rurik Center at Kiev

25 The Emergence of Kievan Rus' New Patterns of Trade Vladimir I ( ) Converts to Russian Orthodoxy Controls church Yaroslav

26 The Emergence of Kievan Rus' Institutions and Culture in Kievan Rus' Influenced by Byzantine patterns Orthodox influence Ornate churches Icons Monasticism

27 The Emergence of Kievan Rus' Institutions and Culture in Kievan Rus' Art, literature dominated by religion, royalty Free farmers predominant Boyars, landlords Less powerful than in the West

28 The Emergence of Kievan Rus' Kiev Built by Dneiper River Trade center Christianity Mass baptism in 988 Church building Largest city in Europe in 1200

29 The Emergence of Kievan Rus' Kievan Decline Decline from 12th century Rival governments Succession struggles Asian conquerors Mongols (Tatars) 13th century, take territory Traditional culture survives

30 The Emergence of Kievan Rus' The End of an Era in Eastern Europe Mongol invasions usher in new period East and West further separated

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