Unit Three. The Middle East and Asia in the Medieval Age

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1 Unit Three The Middle East and Asia in the Medieval Age

2 The Rise of Islam Chapter 10

3 Rise of Islam - Terms 1. Muhammad born into a powerful Meccan family, spent time alone in prayer & meditation; at the age of 40 he heard a voice while meditating, according to Muslim belief, the voice was that of the angel Gabriel, who told Muhammad that he was the messenger of Allah; Muhammad began to teach that Allah was the one & only God and that all other gods must be abandoned

4 2. Allah 3. Islam 4. Muslim 5. Hijrah 6. mosque 7. hajj 8. Qu ran 9. Sunna 10. Shari'a

5 The Arabian Peninsula 1. access to three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa 2. access to Oceans and Rivers 3. harsh landscape

6 Desert Life 1. Bedouins desert nomads; honor and family very important 2. trade routes in the desert caravans horse & camel trains of merchants, baggage & guards

7

8 Mecca 1. location of the Ka aba 2. according to Muslims, built by Abraham and Ishmael (Isma il) 3. many religions found in Arabia in 6 th Century AD: Judaism, Christianity, Paganism

9 Muhammad 1. born around 570 AD 2. became a trader, married his boss 3. at the age of 40, he began having visions of the angel Gabriel, who he thought was a messenger of Allah, God 4. Islam Submission to Allah; Muslim One who submits 5. began preaching in Mecca his monotheistic message was unpopular with town leaders

10 The Hijrah and Return 1. in 622, Muhammad and his supporters moved to Yathrib 2. after solidifying his support, he began raiding Meccan caravans 3. in 630, Mecca surrendered and he destroyed the idols at the Ka aba 4. Muhammad: both a spiritual and military leader 5. he died 2 years later (632)

11 The Beliefs of Islam 1. The Five Pillars A. Shahadah testimony of faith B. Salat prayer five times a day facing Mecca C. Zakat giving alms to the poor D. Sawm fasting during Ramadan E. Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca

12 2. sources of authority A. Qur an (Koran) Muhammad s revelations, believed by Muslims to be the literal word of God B. Sunnah way of the prophet, stories about Muhammad s life C. Shar ia Islamic law, regulates individual, family and community law (no separation of church and state) D. Jihad 3. links to Christianity and Judaism A. regard Allah as the god of Jews and Christians B. Jesus was a prophet, not divine C. Muhammad was the final prophet

13 Rise of Islam - Quiz 1. Arabic term for God 2. Islamic place of worship 3. a pilgrimage to Mecca 4. the holy book of Islam 5. one who submits A. Muslim B. hajj C. mosque D. Islam E. Allah F. Qur an

14 Islam Expands 1. Muhammad s sudden death left succession in question 2. took the title caliph

15 Rightly Guided Caliphs 1. Abu Bakr Muhammad s father in law 2. Umar conquered Jerusalem; compiled the Quran 3. Uthman killed by supporters of Ali 4. Ali Muhammad s son in law, overthrown by the Ummayads

16 Expansion 1. expand west into Egypt, and north into Syria - take Jerusalem from the Byzantines, build the Dome of the Rock mosque 2. expand eastward, conquer the Persian Empire 3. religious tolerance for people of the book (Jews and Christians) with restrictions

17 4. North African Muslims, called Moors, conquer Spain, stopped in France (Battle of Tours) 5. Why did Islam expand so fast? weakness of Byzantines & Persians; unification of previously feuding Arab tribes

18 Internal Conflict 1. Muawiya (governor of Syria and Uthman s cousin) claimed the caliphate over Ali 2. Ali assassinated, Muawiya moved capital to Damascus. The Umayyad Dynasty begins 3. Shi a Muslims Ali should have been first Caliph, Caliphs should be descended from Muhammad 4. Sunni Islams Four Caliphs were correctly chosen

19 The Abassids 1. put together support from many groups who despise the Umayyads 2. take power in move capital to newly built city of Baghdad 4. Abassid caliphate lasts until Muslim unity broken before then: Umayyads still in Spain, Fatimids (Shi ites) in Egypt

20 Chapter 11 Byzantines, Russians and Mongols, Oh My!

21 Terms to Know 1. Justinian Byzantine nobleman who succeeded his uncle to the throne of the Eastern Empire (Byzantine Empire) in Justinian Code - the body of Roman civil law collected and organized by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian around A.D. 534

22 3. Hagia Sophia - the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian 4. patriarch - a principal bishop in the eastern branch of Christianity 5. icon - a religious image used by eastern Christians

23 6. excommunication - the taking away of a person s right of membership in a Christian church 7. Cyrillic alphabet - an alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth century A.D. by Saints Cyril and Methodius

24 Byzantine Empire 1. Was the old remaining portion of the Roman Empire capital at Constantinople 2. they did not call themselves Byzantines 3. called themselves Romans 4. spoke Greek

25 Location of Byzantines

26 Emperor Justinian 1. reigned from Justinian Code -took the old Roman laws and updated them 3. powerful and scandalous wife, Theodora 4. expanded the empire, but maybe at too great a cost

27 The Schism- Christianity Splits 1. conflict between Roman Church & Eastern Church over ikons 2. Roman Church: headed by a pope, says ikons are bad 3. Eastern Church: headed by a patriarch, is excommunicated 4. led to a split in 1054 between Greek church and Rome 5. The new church was called the Eastern Orthodox Church

28 1. Bubonic Plague in 542 End of Byzantines 2. Justinian died in 565 his conquests were lost 3. Islamic expansion took Egypt, Syria, Jerusalem 4. sack of Constantinople in 1204 by Crusaders 5. by 1300s, the Byzantine Empire was just Constantinople and a strip of the Balkans 6. fell to the Turks in Byzantine (def) - characterized by elaborate scheming and intrigue, esp. for the gaining of political power or favor

29 The Russians 1. area inhabited by Slavs 2. trade connected Vikings in north to Byzantine Empire 3. Vikings, called themselves Rus settled in the area, mixed with Slavs

30 Early Russian Civilization 1. city of Kiev founded by Vikings 2. converted to Christianity (Eastern Orthodox) under Vladimir in Mongol invasions in Rule until Russian nobles like Alexander Nevsky became vassals of the Mongols

31 Mongol Conquests Terms to Know 1. pastoralist 2. clan 3. Genghis Khan (331) 4. Pax Mongolica 5. Kublai Khan (335) 6. Marco Polo (337)

32 The Mongol Conquests 1. Steppe Society north of China 2. pastoral nomadism 3. The Five Snouts 4. horses, ox, goats, camels and pigs

33 Chinggis Khan 1. born in 1165(?) 2. united the tribes of Mongolia (Mongols, Kerieds, Tatars) in turned south to Jin empire in China 4. in 1218, moved west into Persia (Khurasan Empire) 5. died in 1225, while dealing with an uprising by the Xi-Xia

34 The Empire Expands 1. after Chinggis death, his sons continued the conquest s conquered rest of Jin China s moved into Poland and Hungary s Middle East destroyed the Assassins, sacked Baghdad, ended the Abbasid Caliphate stopped in Egypt by Mamluks

35 Mongol Expansion

36 Running the Empire 1. empire split into four khanates A. Khanate of Great Khan (China) B. Chagatai Khanate (Central Asia) C. Golden Horde (Russia) D. Ilkhanate Middle East 2. established free trade, safe highways, postal system

37 The Mongol Empire Late 1400s

38 Kublai Khan 1. grandson of Chinggis, finished conquering southern China (Song Empire) 2. established capital at Peking 3. separation from Chinese Kublai s closest advisors were Persians and Europeans 4. Marco Polo Italian trader 5. Mongol rule in China lasts until 1368

39 Legacy of the Mongols See Digging for the Truth: Genghis Khan video

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