Culture: a people s way of life (how they meet their basic needs for food and shelter) language, literature, music, and art

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1 Aspects of Culture

2 What is Culture? Culture: a people s way of life (how they meet their basic needs for food and shelter) language, literature, music, and art beliefs about the world and religion technology and material objects Customs: things people usually do (how they dress, foods they eat, celebrate holidays & life events) Roles: rules for proper behavior of individuals in particular positions and situations

3 Cultural Perceptions Perception: views & ideas formed about a group (stereotypes) Differing perceptions = misunderstandings or conflicts {Ex: Cold War} people from communist (USSR) and democratic countries ( USA) were suspicious & distrustful of each other

4 What are some of the cultural traits you share with members of your family?

5 What is Religion? A set of beliefs about the meaning of life, the nature of the universe, and existence of the supernatural (God) A set of customs and practices that relate to the worship of God(s) and a set of rules for the conduct of a good life An organization (church) which oversees the conduct of religious practices Most religions designate some special places as sacred/holy

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7 1. Animism believes that spirits live within: a. Nature b. Each person c. Only holy shrines

8 Animism Belief that many things in nature have their own spirit One of the earliest forms of religion {Ex: Sub-Saharan Africa & Native America} tribes believed animals, plants and places had their own spirits {Ex: Japan} believed many spirits (kami) exist in nature (Shintoism)

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10 2. Which is NOT true about Hinduism? a. They believe in reincarnation and many gods b. It is only practiced in Asia, mostly in India c. They consider the Ganges River to be holy

11 Hinduism 3 rd largest religion in the world, most popular in India & Nepal Teaches principles of life can be discovered through meditation Holy book Bhagavida-Gita provides guidance & inspiration

12 Gods: there are many Hinduism (polytheistic); each is a form of one Supreme Being Reincarnation: a soul is reborn as another living thing Karma: behavior determines person s form in next life Sacred Objects: Cows (don t eat beef), Ganges River (washes away sin and evil)

13 Hindu Caste System Merchants Outcastes Priests Unskilled Workers Warriors & Rulers

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15 3. How does Buddhism differ from other major religions? a. Their founder, Buddha, was not a real person b. You cannot convert, you must be born into it c. Not centered around God, rather around Man

16 Began in Nepal (500BC) by Buddhism Prince Siddhartha Gautama Came to believe suffering was caused by human desire Became known as Buddha (The Enlightened One) Buddhist missionaries carried his ideas to India, China, Korea, and Japan; today popular in East & Southeast Asia

17 Philosophy of self-denial & meditation, believe in reincarnation Gods: do not believe in a single Supreme Being Four Noble Truths: explain life s meaning (give up desires) Eightfold Path: ways to give up selfish human desires Nirvana: state of eternal peace (goal of Eightfold Path)

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19 4. How was Judaism different than the religions before it? a. Monotheistic: believed in one God b. Covenant: anyone can talk to God c. Holy Texts: scripture and commandments

20 Judaism 4000 years ago in Israel by the Hebrew people Torah (first 5 books): holy book of the Jews Today: 17 million Jews; 40% in Israel and 40% in the US Monotheism: belief in only one God Ten Commandments: God s laws for how to live justly Old Testament (Bible): history of ancient Hebrews

21 Began 2000 years ago based on Christianity teachings of Jesus, a prophet Today: world s most popular religion with 2 billion followers Later, Christianity Divided: Orthodox (Greece & Russia), Catholics (Pope head of Church), and Protestants (reject Pope, people interpret Bible themselves)

22 Christianity Jesus: son of God, sacrificed to save humans; resurrected Conduct: faith in Jesus = heaven; follow the Golden Rule Bible: Old Testament (Jewish) + New (Christ & Apostles)

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24 5. Which is NOT one of the pillars of Islam? a. Allah is the one God, Muhammed his prophet b. Journey hajj to Medina every year c. No food & drink (fasting) during Ramadan

25 Means submission to Allah (God); followers called Muslims Islam Today: over 1 billion followers; fastest growing religion (600AD) Founded by Mohammed to convert tribes to one God Followers believe Mohammed was God s last & greatest prophet Holy Book: Qu ran (Koran) contains his teachings

26 Islam Five Pillars of Faith 1. Faith: There is no God but Allah, Mohammed is his prophet 2. Prayer: 5 times a day, facing Mecca 3. Charity: give to the poor, taxes to the mosque 4. Fasting: during month of Ramadan, no food/drink during day 5. Pilgrimage: religious trip to Mecca, if physically able

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