Buddhism 101. Distribution: predominant faith in Burma, Ceylon, Thailand and Indo-China. It also has followers in China, Korea, Mongolia and Japan.

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2 Buddhism 101 Founded: 6 th century BCE Founder: Siddhartha Gautama, otherwise known as the Buddha Enlightened One Place of Origin: India Sacred Books: oldest and most important scriptures are the Tripitaka, (The Three Baskets of Wisdom) Number of Adherents: approximately 200 million close adherents, although some estimates surpass the 600 million mark. Precision is impossible Distribution: predominant faith in Burma, Ceylon, Thailand and Indo-China. It also has followers in China, Korea, Mongolia and Japan. Buddhists in Canada: upwards of 10, 000 Sects: two principal schools are Mahayana and Theravadin (or Hinayana) Buddhism

3 Buddhism Basics Attempts to give answers to life s questions Emphasis on things to do rather than things to believe Avoid speculative questions (creation, Supreme power, afterlife) since there was little possibility of definitive answers = instead spend time attempting to deal with the harsh realities presented by life here and now Tolerant to any religion that allows a person to find truth of himself/ herself. Believe that setting an example which others may emulate. ULTIMATE GOAL= end suffering and attain absolute peace and joy

4 SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA Siddhartha Gautama born 563 BCE into Kshatriya caste in present day Nepal Kingdom of Gautama BUDDHA= ENLIGHTENED ONE Siddhartha had a legendary birth, life and death Prophecy given to his father

5 Prophecy: father was told by a sage that his son would be destined for greatness- as a powerful emperor or as a religious leader who would devise a path to salvation for all mankind. Preferring the first of these possibilities, the father resolved to isolate his son in the luxury of palaces, in order to prevent him from venturing forth into the outside world, where he might see how other half lived and perhaps derive some special religious inspiration

6 BUDDHA BIO READING & QS

7 ENLIGHTENMENT > NEW RELIGION After achieving enlightenment, Buddha wanted to share his experiences and insights with others and traveled to Benares and encountered five ascetics. Deer Park Sermon: outlined his enlightened thoughts and converted five ascetics as his first disciples Founded the SANGHA, the monastic brotherhood of Buddhism Argued that no rituals, gods or any type of outside power could save man. The only salvation lies in the realization of the Four Noble Truths and the diligent pursuit of the Eight Fold Path Within years, Buddhist monasteries were emerging throughout India, establishing Buddhism as a religion The Buddha died in 486 BCE and achieved paranirvana (complete nirvana)

8 3 Characteristics of Existence Annica= impermanence (world in constant flux) Dukkha= dissatisfaction (all humans and animals experience suffering) ANNICA DUKKHA Anatta= no self (no separate, eternal unchanging self; egolessness ) ANATTA By bringing all these together through concentrated awareness, one can achieve wisdom, which is the way out of samsara

9 FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS

10 Fundamental Ethics of Buddhism is the Eightfold Path. Right means complete, Ideal, coherence. Practiced by Sanhga

11 FIVE PRECEPTS These are the basic code of ethics for Buddhists 1) Abstain from killing or harming living beings 2) Abstain from stealing 3) Abstain from improper sexual conduct 4) Abstain from false speech 5) Abstain from taking alcohol and harmful drugs

12 Three Jewels/Three Refuges These are the 3 cornerstones of Buddhism; the framework for the transmission of Buddhist teachings A refuge is somewhere you turn to for guidance When a person accepts the Buddhist philosophy and wants to make it part of their life, the traditional way is to say "I take refuge in the Buddha, I take refuge in the Dharma, I take refuge in the Sangha."

13 1. the Buddha to seek the capacity to be awakened to what the Buddha experienced; reminds us to find our own Buddha nature 2. Dharma the path that follows the teaching of the Buddha; teaches compassion, understanding of the Four Noble Truths, applying teachings to everyday life 3. Sangha anyone who comes together with others to study, discuss, meditate; interaction with others is essential for practicing (Sangha is the monastic life; but also common interpretation is any community who embrace the Dharma)

14 More Numbers and Concepts Three Poisons/Three Fires: Desire, Hatred, Ignorance (these are what keep people in samsara) Six Perfections: giving, morality, patience, vigour, meditation and wisdom Bodhisattva: person who has attained nirvana but chooses to be reborn within samsara in order to help others on path of enlightenment Nirvana: escape from cycle of rebirth (based on karma, 8-fold path, enlightenment) to attain perfect freedom and bliss

15 Practices Meditation- lotus posture Bowing (three times) Offerings & Chanting Mantras Karma Dana (donations) Mudras Monastic Ideal

16 Symbols Wheel of Life Mandala Lotus Flower Stupa Temples Buddhapada

17 Sacred Writings Tipitaka (Three Baskets) baskets function is not to hold, but to hand down or pass onto another ~ almost pages long and principal source for the life and teachings of Buddha ~ considered to be the most accurate of Buddha s teachings which consist of: Vinaya- Pitaka: Basket of Discipline (rules for Sangha or monks) Sutta- Pitaka: Basket of Discourse (discourses between Buddha and his disciples = main body of Buddhist belief) Abidhamma- Pitiaka: Basket of Further Teachings (views on the nature of the universe)

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