Indus Valley- one of the early contributors to Hinduism. Found fire pits and animal bones which showed that this civilization had animal sacrifices

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1 Indus Valley- one of the early contributors to Hinduism. Found fire pits and animal bones which showed that this civilization had animal sacrifices Parvati- A mother goddess representing female energy Shiva- deity who is considered the destroyer and restorer of the universe. Also part of the Hindu trinity Aryans- they wrote the Vedas, and believed in worshiping Agni, which they thought was the link between the people and the Gods Vedas- Hinduisms earliest sacred writings Ganges River- believed to be a holy body of water that was dropped from heaven by the Gods Rig-Veda- this book is mostly comprised of mantras, which are dedicated to the Gods of war, wind, rain, and sun Upanishads- philosophical commentaries that are found at the end of all of the Vedas Agni- The God of fire; The link between Gods and humans Atman- The human soul, part of our most innermost self that is identical to Brahman, the universal soul Brahman- The universal soul and supreme being. The eternal spirit from which all things originate and to which they return

2 Hindu Trinity- composed of Shiva, Vishnu, and Brahma Brahma- A deity who is considered the creator of the universe. Also part of the Hindu Trinity Vishnu- A deity who is considered the preserver of the universe; part of the Hindu Trinity Saraswati- Goddess of learning and the arts. Created by Brahma Lakshmi- Goddess of wealth, happiness and good fortune. Reincarnation- the belief that when you die your soul will continue to live on in another body Samsara- the endless cycle of re-births Moksha- Liberation from the endless cycle of re-birth; attained by uniting the Atman with the Brahman Karma- the totality of one s actions: the accumulation of good or bad deeds determines one s birth in his or her next life Bhakti Yoga- the path of devotion, which involves devotion and love toward a personal deity.

3 Karma Yoga- the path of action, which involves doing good deeds and thoughts, which will lead to the accumulation of good karma Jnana Yoga- path of wisdom, which involves calling for the wisdom of a satguru, learning about the relationship between the atman and the nature of the universe as explained in the scriptures Raja Yoga- Path of meditation, which involves the follows achieving moksha through deep intense meditation and contemplation Dharma- a religious or moral duty Caste System- the organization of Hindu society into four groups, each with its own expectations and duties Brahmins- a member of the highest hindu caste who would be a priest or religious teacher Kshatriyas- a member of the second highest hindu caste who would be a warrior or a ruler Vaishyas- a member of the second last caste who would be a merchant or a farmer Sudras- a member of the last official hindu caste who would be a servant or labourer Untouchables- the last actual hindu caste who would be doing jobs that all others find to be unsanitary or unclean

4 Artha- earning money by honest means to provide for your family; acquiring wealth and power Kama- pursuing love and physical pleasures to balance life and to sanctify marriage Student- this stage of life is when you discipline your body and gain knowledge about the rules and rituals of Hinduism Householder- this stage of life is when you marry and have a family and practice social and religious traditions Forest Dweller- this stage of life is when you retire and transmit your household duties to your wife or son so you can participate in religious pilgrimages Ascetic- this stage of life is when you give up worldly life, wander, mediate, attain salvation. Mahatma Ghandi- fought for the rights of all Hindus by using the concept of Ahisma. Laws of Manu- Affirms the concepts of the caste system, dharma and the four aims in life It deals with religious practices, law, customs and politics Om- a sacred syllable that involves the essence of Brahman when chanted, used at the beginning and end of all hindu worship

5 Mantras- a sacred word or phrase that is chanted during worship or meditation Puja- providing the gods with offerings of flowers, incense, fruit, milk Parasad- a meal that is distributed throughout the worshipers from the blessed offerings that were provided to the deity. Yoga- a practice or discipline combining philosophy with physical exercises and meditation; union with God Meditation- deep contemplation that leads to a trance like state in which the individual tried to become one with the Brahman Swastika- hindu symbol of good luck, usually placed on wedding invitations Ahisma- the doctrine of non violence toward all living creatures Diwali- the hindu festival of lights that takes place in Oct/Nov which celebrates the triumph of good over evil Satguru- a spiritual teacher or guide who can help one achieve moksha/salvation Shruti- knowledge that is revealed to or discovered by the wise men of Hinduism through the Vedas Smriti- human made literature, or knowledge that is remembered

6 Holi- spring festival where worshipers light a bonfire that signifies the burning of evil Mahashivaratri- this march festival is an event that is dedicated strictly to shiva by fasting for 24 hours Navaratri- this nine night festival in autumn or spring that worships the Hindu Goddesses

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