Hinduism. AP World History Chapter 6ab

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1 Hinduism AP World History Chapter 6ab

2 Origins Originates in India from literature, traditions, and class system of Aryan invaders Developed gradually; took on a variety of forms and gods particular to regions

3 The Basics Everything is part of a divine essence called Brahma. A meaningful life is one that has found union with Brahma which is achieved through reincarnation. Samsara: wheel of rebirth, slow process through which soul is reincarnated from one life form to another.

4 The Ultimate Goal After living many good lives, the soul is united with Brahma; upon achieving this (called moksha [salvation]), the soul no longer experiences worldly suffering. For most, it is distant and not to be attained in this lifetime.

5 Polytheism Over 330 million gods and goddesses. Hindus can freely worship whichever gods and goddesses they like.

6 6 Many deities Based on different beliefs & practices -- not founded by one person Doesn t have one, single holy book 3 gods are most important = Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver), and Siva (destroyer)

7 Vishnu = Preserver Brahma = Creator Siva = Destroyer

8 The Vedas Priests called Brahmins collected hymns, poems, prayers, and rituals into holy books known as Vedas Brahmins performed rituals and sacrifices, which gave them power and wealth

9 The Upanishads Upanishads = religious writings compiled by anonymous thinkers All humans have a soul = the atman All souls are part of 1 eternal & universal spirit = Brahman Goal in life = union with the Brahman = liberation or moksha

10 Cycle of Rebirth Believed in samsara = reincarnation/rebirth of the soul Soul passes through many lifetimes and continues until spiritual liberation = moksha Karma = how a person lives in this life determines what form the person will take in the next life Liberation achieved through a life of prayer, strict self-denial, and rejection of all worldly possessions

11 Law and Order: Karma Moral law of cause and effect; logical system of justice. In Hinduism, a person s good or evil deeds in his personal life is that person s karma. Those who die with good karma may be reincarnated into a higher caste, whereas those with evil karma might descend to a lower caste or become an animal. Law and Order: Dharma Moral law which serves as a guide to actions in this world. For every activity, there is a way of acting that conforms to dharma. Hindus can consult sacred scripture, generational tradition, or sage advice from elders to ensure they follow dharma.

12 Hinduism and the Caste System Hindu religion reinforced the Indian caste system, offering hope for an improved lifestyle in the next life, especially for members of a lower caste. Those of the upper castes were encouraged by the prospect of achieving moksha soon.

13 Daily Devotion Household rituals: maintain shrines to chosen deities. Holy places: pilgrimage to holy sites. Cow veneration: Aryan customs dictate that cows represent life. Therefore, cattle are sacred and Hindus are forbidden from consuming beef.

14 Hindu Practices Sati: traditional practice of a recently widowed woman burning herself upon her husband s funeral pyre; outlawed in 1829, but still occurs occasionally. Yoga: physical and psychological techniques for spiritual advancement; used to free eternal self from the bondage of personhood.

15 Hinduism Today Vast majority live in Nepal and India World s third largest religion, behind Christianity (1) and Islam (2). Almost 1 billion people practice Hinduism. Hinduism still continues to be highly tolerant of other religions.

16 Buddhism vs. Hinduism Similarities Karma Rebirth/reincarnation Practice of meditation Final release from cycle of rebirth

17 Buddhism vs. Hinduism Differences Buddhism rejects: Religious authority of Hindu Brahmins Hindu caste system Hindu deities

18 New Wave of Hinduism More focus on individual action as a means of achieving spiritual liberation Less emphasis on rituals and sacrifices made by the Brahmins Stressed devotion to one of the gods/goddesses

19 19

20 20 Sacred town of Tirupati. Hindus undertake pilgrimages to this city for the festivals celebrating Hinduism.

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