Hinduism & Sikhism UNIT 2: RELIGION AND BELIEF SYSTEMS

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1 Hinduism & Sikhism UNIT 2: RELIGION AND BELIEF SYSTEMS

2 Hinduism

3 Origins No founder Oldest living religion dating back to 2000 BCE

4 The Four Varnas Early Indian society operated on a caste system that is divided into four castes, or varnas social groups that ranked people from high to low Brahmins* (priestly class) Kshatriyas (warriors & nobles) Vaisyas (commoners merchants, farmers) Sudras (peasants or servants) *Be careful not to confuse Brahmin with Brahma or Brahman.

5 The Caste System Every Indian was believed to be born into a caste, or social group defined by occupation and family Caste determines job, relationships Higher caste = religious purity; lower caste = religious impurity Untouchables/Outcastes: people so impure that they are excluded from the caste system entirely

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7 Important Terms Brahman: A form of ultimate reality and universal force; world soul It is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists. It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind the diversity in all that exists in the universe. Atman: Individual soul of a living being Moksha: Enlightenment; attained when Brahman and Atman are one Yoga: A physical and mental discipline designed to harmonize the body with the soul; training for meditation

8 Important Terms Reincarnation: The cycles of life, death, and rebirth; the Atman transfers to a new body upon physical death Karma: Force generated by a person s actions that determines how the person will be reincarnated Dharma: Code of behavior Vedas: Sacred religious Hindu scriptures

9 Creator god who created the world, its creatures, and the Vedas

10 Preserver and protector of life Restores balance to good and evil when evil takes over

11 Destroyer god who destroys the world so it can be remade

12 Lord of success and destroyer of evils and obstacles God of education, knowledge, and wisdom

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15 Principles of Hinduism All living beings seek to achieve moksha Higher caste = closer to moksha To achieve moksha, living beings are often reincarnated many times Just as worn out garments are shed by the body, worn out bodies are shed by the dweller within the body [the soul]. A person s current status within the caste system is not accidental but the result of karma Dharma dictates how each caste must behave; Higher caste = higher expectations Reincarnation used to justify caste system

16 Practices Respect for all life; vegetarian Yoga trains your body to meditate; meditation is the way towards moksha Purification rituals involve bathing in rivers

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19 Sikhism

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22 Origins Sikh means disciple Youngest of the major religions (~500 years ago); 30 million followers today Started in Punjab region of India Sikhism rejects the idea of a one true religion

23 The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life.

24 Sikhism Combines unique ideas with parts of Hinduism and parts of Islam obelieve in reincarnation and karma like Hindus omonotheistic, no caste system similar to Islam Based on justice and equality Strong warriors mostly for defense All are welcome to eat at Sikh gurudwaras (temples)

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29 Khalsa Sikhs join the Khalsa (brotherhood) and are sworn to defend their faith, their people, and their neighbors with their lives Men take on the name Singh after initiation Strictly follow the 5 Ks

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31 5 Ks Kesh: Uncut hair (devotion) Kangha: wooden comb (cleanliness, organization) Kara: iron or steel bracelet (eternity) Kirpan: sword (defend the truth) Kachera: short trousers (selfrespect and readiness)

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33 Discrimination Discrimination against Sikhs rose after 9/ hate crimes in the first month 17% rise in hate crimes against Sikhs since the 2016 presidential election 55-70% of high school Sikhs say they are bullied, 2-3 times as likely as the average American child 20-30% were bullied physically 41% of Sikhs in NYC have been called Islamophobic names like Osama or terrorist 1 in every 10 adult Sikhs has been physically assaulted because of mistaken religious identity 12% of Sikhs have reported employment discrimination (many times higher than the average) 100% of Sikhs in a large study were stopped by TSA at the airport TSA has denied any profiling

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