WORLD HISTORY 8 CH 5.2 ORIGINS OF HINDUISM

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1 WORLD HISTORY 8 CH 5.2 ORIGINS OF HINDUISM

2 1. EXPLAIN THE ORIGINS OF INDIA S CLASS STRUCTURE.

3 AS ARYAN SOCIETY BECAME MORE COMPLEX, THEIR SOCIETY BECAME DIVIDED INTO GROUPS BASE ON, FOR THE MOST PART, PEOPLE S OCCUPATIONS.

4 QUESTION 2 WHAT WERE THE VARNAS? LIST THEM IN ORDER.

5 BRAHMINS: PRIESTS KSHATRIYAS: RULERS/WARRIORS VAISYAS: FARMERS/CRAFTSPEOPLE/ TRADERS SUDRAS: LABORERS/NON- ARYANS

6

7 QUESTION 3 EXPLAIN HOW THE VARNAS TRANSFORMED INTO WHAT WE KNOW AS THE CASTE SYSTEM TODAY.

8 AS THE RULES OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN VANAS BECAME MORE AND MORE STRICT AND COMPLEX, THEY DEVELOPED INTO CASTES DIVISIONS OF SOCIETY BASED ON BIRTH, WEALTH, AND OCCUPATIONS.

9 QUESTION 4 WHAT IMPACT DID THE CASTE OF A PERSON HAVE?

10 THE CASTE TO WHICH A PERSON BELONGED INDICATED THEIR PLACE IN SOCIETY.

11 QUESTION 5 HOW DID THE ROLES AND RIGHTS OF WOMEN CHANGE OVER TIME IN THE ARYAN PERIOD?

12 EARLY IN THE ARYAN PERIOD, WOMEN HAD MOST OF THE SAME RIGHTS AS MEN. THEY COULD OWN PROPERTY AND RECEIVE AN EDUCATION. OVERTIME, HOWEVER, LAWS WERE PASSED TO LIMIT THESE RIGHTS.

13 QUESTION 6 WHO WERE THE UNTOUCHABLES?

14 THIS WAS A GROUP THAT DIDN T BELONG TO ANY CASTE. THEY WERE VIRTUALLY OUTCASTS OF SOCIETY, COULD ONLY HOLD CERTAIN, OFTEN UNPLEASANT JOBS, AND WERE OFTEN SHUNNED BY THE REST OF SOCIETY.

15 QUESTION 7 WHAT WERE THE SUTRAS?

16 SUTRAS WERE GUIDES WHICH LISTED THE RULES FOR THE CASTE SYSTEM.

17 QUESTION 8 WHAT WERE THE BASIC RULES REGARDING INTERACTION BETWEEN CASTES?

18 PEOPLE WERE NOT ALLOWED TO MARRY OUTSIDE OF THEIR CASTE, NOR COULD THEY HAVE GENERAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH OTHER CASTE MEMBERS.

19 EVEN SOMETHING AS SIMPLE AS SHARING A MEAL WITH A PERSON OF A DIFFERENT CASTE WAS STRICTLY FORBIDDEN.

20 QUESTION 9 WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF YOU BROKE ONE OF THESE RULES?

21 IF THESE LAWS WERE BROKEN, THE OFFENDER WOULD BE BANNED FROM THEIR HOMES AND CASTES, RENDERING THEM UNTOUCHABLES.

22 QUESTION 10 HOW DID BRAHMANISM COME TO EXIST IN INDIA?

23 RELIGION HAD BEEN AN IMPORTANT PART OF ARYAN LIFE EVEN BEFORE MOVING INTO INDIA. IT TOOK ON EVEN MORE MEANING ONCE THEY ARRIVED IN INDIA.

24 QUESTION 11 WHAT ARE THE VEDAS? HOW MANY ARE THERE? HOW FAR DO THEY DATE BACK?

25 THE VEDAS WAS A COLLECTION OF FOUR HOLY WRITINGS THAT CONTAINED SACRED HYMNS AND POEMS.THE OLDEST OF THE FOUR DATES BACK PRIOR TO 1000 B.C.

26 QUESTION 12 WHAT WAS THE PURPOSE OF THE LATER VEDIC TEXTS?

27 VEDIC TEXTS WERE WRITTEN BY BRAHMIN PRIESTS OFTEN AS GUIDES TO CARRY OUT RELIGIOUS RITUALS.

28 THE VEDIC TEXTS INCLUDED THE UPANISHADS, WHICH WERE ARE REFLECTIONS ON THE VEDAS BY RELIGIOUS STUDENTS AND TEACHERS.

29 QUESTION 13 EXPLAIN HOW HINDUISM GREW OUT OF THE ORIGINAL IDEAS OF BRAHMANISM.

30 THE VEDAS, THE UPANISHADS, AND OTHER VEDIC TEXTS EVENTUALLY BLENDED WITH IDEAS FROM OTHER CULTURES SUCH AS PERSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TO CREATE THE RELIGION KNOWN AS HINDUISM.

31 QUESTION 14 WHAT KIND OF RELIGION IS HINDUISM? WHO (WHAT) WAS (WERE) THE MAJOR GOD(S)?

32 HINDUISM IS A POLYTHEISTIC RELIGION WITH NUMEROUS GODS AND GODDESSES. SOME OF THESE INCLUDE:

33 BRAHMA: THE CREATOR

34 SIVA: THE DESTROYER

35 VISHNU: THE PRESERVER

36 QUESTION 15 WHAT WAS THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF HINDUISM?

37 THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF HINDUISM WAS BECOMING ONE WITH THE UNIVERSAL SPIRIT KNOWN AS BRAHMAN.

38 QUESTION 16 WHAT WAS THE ATMAN? WHAT DID THEY BELIEVE ABOUT THE ATMAN? WHAT IS THIS PROCESS KNOWN AS?

39 THE ATMAN WAS THE SOUL THAT HINDUS BELIEVE ALL LIVING THINGS HAVE. IT HOLDS THEIR PERSONALITY AND MAKES THEM WHO THEY ARE.

40 THEY BELIEVE THAT THE WORLD WE LIVE IN IS AN ILLUSION AND THE ONLY REALITY IS BRAHMAN. TO ACHIEVE UNIFICATION WITH BRAHMAN, THE ATMAN GOES THROUGH CYCLES OF REBIRTH CALLED REINCARNATION.

41 QUESTION 17 WHAT OUTSIDE FORCE DID HINDUS BELIEVE HAVE A DIRECT BEARING ON WHAT HAPPENED TO A PERSON S ATMAN DURING REINCARNATION?

42 THIS OUTSIDE FORCE IS KARMA THE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ACTIONS ON THE PERSON S LIFE. POSITIVE KARMA EQUALS REBIRTH CLOSER TO BRAHMAN, NEGATIVE KARMA RESULTS IN REBIRTH FARTHER FROM BRAHMAN.

43 QUESTION 18 WHAT WAS A PERSON S DHARMA?

44 DHARMA WAS THE PERSON S SET OF SPIRITUAL DUTIES. FULLING YOUR DHARMA MEANT ACCEPTING YOUR PLACE IN LIFE.

45 QUESTION 19 WHAT WERE THE FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES OF JAINISM?

46 THE FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES OF JAINISM WERE: 1. INJURE NO LIFE 2. TELL THE TRUTH 3. DO NOT STEAL 4. OWN NO PROPERTY

47 QUESTION 20 WHAT CONCEPT IS A KEY ASPECT OF JAINISM? HOW FAR DID THEY TAKE THIS CONCEPT?

48 THIS KEY CONCEPT WAS THAT ALL LIFE WAS SACRED. JAINISTS TOOK THIS SO SERIOUSLY THAT THEY WOULD CARRY A SMALL BROOM WITH THEM TO SWEEP SMALL CREATURES OUT OF THEIR WAY THAT MAY BE HARMED OTHERWISE.

49 QUESTION 21 WHAT RELIGIONS WERE BLENDED TOGETHER IN SIKHISM? WHAT KIND OF RELIGION IS SIKHISM?

50 QUESTION 22 WHAT FIVE THINGS ARE SIKHS EXPECTED TO WEAR AT ALL TIMES AS A SYMBOL OF THEIR RELIGION?

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