WORLD RELIGIONS. Buddhism. Hinduism. Daoism * Yin-Yang * Cosmogony. Sikhism. * Eight Fold Path. Confucianism Shintoism

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1 Sikhism Buddhism * Eight Fold Path Daoism * Yin-Yang * Cosmogony WORLD RELIGIONS Confucianism Shintoism Hinduism RELIGION set of beliefs for a group of people Soul or spirit; a deity or higher being; life after death

2 EASTERN RELIGIONS South & East Asia

3 Classifications of Religions Monotheistic religions Belief in ONE God Polytheistic religions Belief in MORE THAN ONE god, even thousands Universalizing religions Appeals to people living in a variety of locations Religions that actively seek converts why? DO NOT WORRY ABOUT AN AGRICULTURAL CALENDAR Buddhism; Sikhism; Bahá í Ethnic religions Found in a particular culture Do not seek outside converts Spatially concentrated Religions whose adherents are born into the faith Hinduism; Confucianism; Daoism/Taoism; Shintoism; African religions

4 Distribution Largest ethnic religion HINDUISM 3 rd largest religion Indus River Valley over 4000 years ago Probably World s oldest religion India 97% Nepal Basic Information Polytheism Reincarnation The rebirth of souls after death Karma The moral consequences of a person s actions No central authority / no founder NO HOLY BOOK Sacred text: Vedas Diffusion: through South Asia and into Southeast Asia

5 Hinduism: Beliefs Respect for all life BRAHMAN, the underlying universal life force that encompasses and embodies existence. According to Hindu scriptures, one's ignorance of the true nature of the self (atman) as one with Brahman is what traps one in the cycle of endless death and reincarnation (samsara). Goal of life: is liberation (moksha) union with Brahman release from the cycle of death and rebirth

6 HINDUISM Caste System Class system where everyone was assigned a distinct birth Division of society based on occupation and family lineage Moral duty specific to that caste. Limit a person s ability to move up in life British encouraged the abolishment of the caste system when they left their colony (India gained independence)

7 Brahmans Kshatriyas Priests and scholars Rulers and warriors Vaisyas Farmers and merchants Shudras Artisans and laborers * the above castes were subdivided - The outcasts Untouchables

8 Places of Worship Home HINDUISM Sacred sites: Ganges River Temple used as shrine for particular gods rather than congregational worship Temple contains a dimly lit interior room where a symbolic artifact or some other image of the god rests

9 HINDUS Home Different Temples

10 HINDUS HOME - Idols at the Itasca Temple * Swaminarayan

11 Sacred Landscapes of Hinduism Hinduism pilgrimages follow prescribed routes, and rituals are followed by millions. Varanasi, India on the Ganges River where Hindus perform morning rituals.

12 Hindu pilgrims achieve purification by bathing in the Ganges. Hierarchy of Hindu holy places: Some sites are holy to Hindus throughout India; others have a regional or sectarian importance, or are important only locally.

13 Hindu Temple Angkor Wat, Cambodia. This temple suffers from neglect and destruction now, as Buddhism has supplanted Hinduism in most of Cambodia.

14 HINDUISM Disposing of the Dead Cremation Body is washed with water from Ganges River & burned with a slow fire on a funeral pyre Considered act of purification FREE THE SOUL from body for departure to the afterworld & provide warmth & comfort for the soul as embarked on journey to afterworld REINCARNATION

15 Distribution BUDDHISM 400 million adherents China, Japan, Tibet & Southeast Asia

16 BUDDHISM Basic Information & Diffusion Splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area. Universalizing Religion Concentrated in 1 region of the world Anyone can achieve salvation, anyone can reach enlightenment Can follow another faith - Can be a Buddhist & a believer in another Eastern religion simultaneously Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, China, and Japan. ** NOTICE: Buddhism remained concentrated in one region!

17 Buddhism Basic Information Buddha is a man who had gained supreme enlightenment Central figure Siddhartha Gautama/ Buddha awakened or enlightened one Main day of worship Practiced individual prayer or meditation Followers free to practice the teachings as best they can. No official day of worship Holy Book Tripitaka Clergy Monks The Dalai Lama

18 Beliefs BUDDHISM Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) Son of a lord, faced no hardships Age 29, left his palace & traveled Started to struggle with scenes of pain & suffering (old man; disease-ridden man; corpse; monk) Monk taught him about withdrawal from the world Lived in forest for next 6 years, thinking & meditating Emerged as BUDDHA, awakened or enlightened one Spent next 45 years preaching across India FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS: 1. All living beings suffer 2. Suffering leads to reincarnation 3. Goal is to escape suffering into NIRVANA achieved through mental & moral self-purification 4. Nirvana = attained through Eightfold Path

19 3 Branches of Buddhism Disagree on interpretation of Siddhartha Gautama Mahayana- 56% practiced in China, Japan & Korea Emphasize Buddha s compassion Reflect on Buddha s later teachings & helping others Theravada- 38%- practiced in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand Believe Buddha s original approach, self-help, become a monk, & remove worldly possessions Tantrayana- 6% Practiced in Tibet and Mongolia Dalai Lama

20 BUDDHISM: Holy Places/Sacred Places House of Worship Shrines (holy sites of worship) Pagodas- houses holy relics (of Buddha s) Temple or in one s home- individual prayer or meditation 8 sacred sites JAPANESE PAGODA common Buddhist architecture 5 stories!

21 Holy Sites in Buddhism Most holy sites in Buddhism are locations of important events in Buddha s life and are clustered in northeastern India and southern Nepal.

22 Swedogon Pagodo in Yangon, Myanmar Eight hairs of the Buddha are preserved under the dome (chedi) Buddhist Temple Bodh Gaya, India

23 Buddhist Stupas - 72 stupas, each containing a sculpture of the Buddha in meditation were built around 800 CE and still stand in Borobudur, Indonesia.

24 Kotokun Temple Great Buddha * 2 nd Largest Buddha in Kamakura, Japan

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