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1 Thursday, February 23, 17 World Religions: Hinduism Objec+ve: Complete Warm-Up, discuss Do-Now, complete outline notes on Hinduism Do Now: What two major powers have controlled India? What is a Raj? What is a caste system? Deity- a god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion). Karma- (in Hinduism and Buddhism) the sum of a person's actions in this and previous states of existence, viewed as deciding their fate in future existences.

2 Religions of India Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world, with approximately 900 million adherents It is also the oldest known religion in the world today The origins cannot be ascribed to any single founder or a specific time or a single place

3 Sacred Text The Vedas The oldest and most important is the Vedas (in 4 parts) First in the form of oral histories The Bhagavad Gītā (400 BCE) It is perhaps the most famous, and definitely the most widely-read text of ancient India.

4 Pantheon of Gods Hindus believe in many deities Key: These very interesting looking gods are not to be taken literally There is one big God The Vedas depict Brahman as the Universal Soul The Hindu Trinity (the big 3): Trimurti - Three forms Shiva Brahma Vishnu After this top tier, there is a virtually endless list of second-string deities

5 Hinduism Deities-Shiva Shiva is the Destroyer Even though he represents destruction, Shiva is viewed as a positive force Shiva also has many benevolent and fearsome forms. In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an omniscient Yogi who lives an ascetic life, and in fierce aspects, he is often depicted slaying demons.

6 Deities-Brahma Brahma is the Hindu God of Creation Brahma is traditionally depicted with four heads and four faces and four arms. Brahma does not enjoy popular worship in present-age Hinduism and has lesser importance than the other members of the Trimurti, Vishnu and Shiva.

7 Hinduism Deities-Vishnu Vishnu is the Preserver, he is most famously identified with his human and animal incarnations He manifested Himself as a living being in ten avatars. The peace-loving deity of the Hindu Trinity, Vishnu is the Preserver or Sustainer of life with his steadfast principles of order, righteousness and truth.

8 Deities- Kali Kali is the kick-a** goddess of destruction Kali wears a a necklace made from men's skulls The name of Kali means black one and force of time, she is therefore called the Goddess of Time, Change, Power, Creation, Preservation, and Destruction. She is often portrayed standing or dancing on her consort, the Hindu god Shiva, who lies calm and prostrate beneath her.

9 Deities- Ganesha Ganesha is one of the most well-known and venerated representations of God Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify. Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom.

10 Hinduism Beliefs: Reincarnation Based on the idea that every living being has an eternally existing spirit Reincarnation is the soul's cycle of birth and death until it attains Moksha and is governed by Karma Samsara is the wheel of rebirth which means the soul is reborn from one life form to another. People may be reincarnated at a higher or lower level of existence depending on their karma from their present life. People may be reborn as plants or animals or they may be elevated to a higher caste as a human.

11 Beliefs: Karma Karma rests on the idea of human free-will One s actions determine the course of one s life cycle & rebirth You can't refine your soul overnight, however. Hindus believe it takes many lifetimes to achieve moksha Every action produces a justified effect based on its moral worthiness. Karma determines all the particular circumstances and Situations of one s life. Dharma: Ethical duty based on the divine order of reality. The word is the closest equivalent to religion.

12 Social: The Caste System The caste system is a painfully rigid system of class oppression The caste system has come to be seen as a manifestation of karma Your next lifetime is your only hope for rising through the castes There are four hereditary castes (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras, and the Untouchables.)

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