5 500 B.C.E. ~ began in India. Siddartha Guatama : Buddha or Enlightened One. Spread quickly with those not happy with Hinduism s caste system. Mahabodhi temple in India - Where Buddha attained nirvana under the Bodhi tree.
6 Painting of Buddha Surrounded By Monks
7 Sarnath where Buddha gave his first sermon.
8 350 Million worldwide. Known as Buddhists.
9 Do not believe in a personal creator/god.
10 Tripitaka: contains all of Buddha s teachings.
11 Meditate in temples & have shrines in homes: Statue of Buddha Incense burner Candles
12 One of the earliest statues of Buddha circa 1 st -2 nd century CE.
13 4 Noble Truths: there is suffering caused by greedy desire & the need to get rid of it by following the Eightfold Path (rules of conduct).
14 Eightfold Path 1. Try to recognize the truth 2. Try to avoid evil actions and bad people 3. Do not say things that hurt others 4. Respect other people and their belongings 5. Choose a job that does no harm to others 6. Do not think evil thoughts 7. Avoid excitement or anger 8. Work at meditation, thinking carefully about what matters in life
15 Karma: past actions have an effect on who or what we are in the next life.
16 GOAL: achieve NIRVANA, or most enlightened state of perfect peace.
17 Reincarnation: one is continually REBORN until they reach NIRVANA.
19 Began in India 4,000 years ago near Indus River. World s OLDEST religion.
20 785 Million worldwide. Known as Hindus. Over 80% of India s population.
21 785 Million worldwide. Known as Hindus. Over 80% of India s population.
22 MANY gods & goddesses. Brahman is SUPREME god.
23 Vedas ~ written in Sanskrit.
24 Pilgrimage to sacred places (Ganges River) & temples.
26 Diwali Festival of Lights Hindu Celebration in India
27 Cremation: dead are burnt, not buried. All living beings have souls (animals as well as people). Karma
28 The Caste System: VARNAS Evidence of Hinduism s lasting impact on India Division of society based on occupation & birth.
29 Caste System The caste system divides people into 4 main classes: 1. Brahmans (priests and wise men) highest class 2. Kashatriyas (warriors, rulers, soldiers) next class 3. Vaishyas (merchants, traders, small farmers) third 4. Shudras (peasants and field workers) last class A fifth caste is considered even lower, the untouchables or pariahs, who do work that no one else would do.
30 School of Untouchables Early 1900s
33 Reincarnation: a soul is eternal and lives many lifetimes until united with Brahman in MOKSHA.
34 The heart of the person before you is a mirror. See there your own form. - A Shinto Saying
35 The indigenous faith of Japan-as old as Japan itself. Means way of the gods. No founder or date of origin.
36 3-4 million. Known as Shinto.
37 Polytheistic based on kami: divine spirits that live in nature. Kami: Superior Spirits believed to live in beautiful places, animals, and especially as a person s ancestors. Mountains & rivers in Japan are considered homes to these kami and considered sacred.
38 Some prominent rocks are worshiped as kami.
39 Humans become kami after they die and are revered by their families as ancestral kami. The kami of extraordinary people are even enshrined at some shrines. The Sun Goddess is considered Shinto's most important kami.
40 Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters) Nihon shoki (Chronicles of Japan) Written between A.D. Oral traditions, mythology, & ceremonies of ancient Shinto.
41 Shrines (considered homes of kami) People visit shrines to worship kami, make offerings, & pray for good fortune. Sacred objects representing kami are stored in innermost chamber of shrine where they can t be seen by anyone. Celebrate festivals regularly in order to show kami outside world. Ise Jingu: most sacred shrine in Japan.
42 Ise Jingu is Shinto's most sacred shrine.
43 Torii One or more torii gates mark the approach and entrance to a shrine. They come in various colors and are made of various materials. Most torii, however are made of wood, and many are painted orange and black.
46 At some shrines, visitors burn incense (osenko) in large incense burners. Purchase a bundle, light them, let them burn for a few seconds and then extinguish the flame by waving your hand rather than by blowing it out. Finally, put the incense into the incense burner and fan some smoke towards yourself as the smoke is believed to have healing power. For example, fan some smoke towards your shoulder if you have an injured shoulder.
47 There is no right or wrong & nobody is perfect. Humans basically good; evil is caused by evil spirits. Some humans become kami after death. The Four Affirmations: 1. Tradition & Family 2. Love of Nature 3. Physical Cleanliness 4. Worship of Kami (Matsuri)
48 Tradition and the family: The family is seen as the main force for traditions to be preserved. Main celebrations relate to birth and marriage.
49 Love of nature: Nature is sacred; to be in contact with nature is to be close to the Gods. Natural objects are worshipped as sacred spirits
50 Physical cleanliness: Followers of Shinto take baths, wash their hands, and rinse out their mouth often. Shinto stresses purifying that which is unclean, such as dirt, wounds, and disease. Touching the dead is considered unclean.
51 Matsuri: The worship given to the kami and the ancestral spirits.
52 Death is bad and impure. Some humans become kami after death.
53 Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself -Confucius
54 550 B.C.: Confucius born to noble, but poor family in China. Neither a religious leader nor prophet, but a TEACHER!
55 5-6 million. Known as Confucians.
56 There are none this is NOT A RELIGION, but a WAY OF LIFE
57 Analects: most important sacred work based on his sayings. Focuses on 5 personal relationships & role of proper conduct in society. Conversation in Chinese.
58 There is none it s not a religion!
59 Believed the key to peace & social order was for people to behave with good character & virtue. Way of life centered on people-to-people relationships and education. 5 Basic Relationships: 1. Ruler & Subject 2. Father & Son 3. Husband & Wife 4. Older brother & Younger brother 5. Friend & Friend
60 * Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn t know, is characteristic of the person who knows. * Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake. * The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others. * To go too far is as wrong as to fall short. * Never kiss a fool, or be fooled by a kiss.
61 Confucius never discussed his beliefs about what would happen to people after they die.
63 Label page 112 of your INB with the title of this task and our Essential Question.
64 You are to create 4 colorful characters to represent the major South and East Asian belief systems we just studied. Shintoism Confucianism Buddhism Hinduism For each character, you are to create a dialogue bubble, describing that character s belief system. In each dialogue bubble, describe 1 similarity and 1 difference between that belief system and the other three Southeast Asian belief systems we studied.
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