Gods & Spirits. Kenneth Feldmeier Office hours: Tuesday before class

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1 Gods & Spirits Kenneth Feldmeier Office hours: Tuesday before class

2 Recap: Where have we been, where do we go? The plan; this week we are going to discuss different ideas about gods and spirits Look at Buddhism & Hinduism (Polytheism) Then Witchcraft

3 Kinds of Religion Religious forms vary from culture to culture, but there are correlations between political organization and religious type. Religious Practitioners and Types: Wallace defined religion as consisting of all a society s cult institutions (rituals and associated beliefs) and developed four categories from this. Shamanic religions shamans are part-time religious intermediaries who may act as curers--these religions are most characteristic of foragers.

4 Kinds of Religion (continued) Communal religions have shamans, community rituals, multiple nature gods, and are more characteristic of food producers than foragers. Olympian religions first appeared with states, have full-time religious specialists whose organization may mimic the states, and have potent anthropomorphic gods who may exist as a pantheon. Monotheistic religions have all the attributes of Olympian religions, except that the pantheon of gods is subsumed under a single eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent being.

5 Spirits What is a Spirit? 2 types; Non-individualized Individualized

6 Nonindividualized Spirits without a connection to an individual Turn to page: 192

7 Individually recognized Connected to an individual

8 More About Spirits Complex personalities Live in Human World Bad or Good Can be Influenced Turn to Page 190

9 Find Your Spirit Animal Type: how can i figure out my spirit animal First Website to come up, Find Your Spirit Animal Write Down; What animal are you, Powers, Best Matches, & Who to Watch

10 Gods & Goddess

11 What is and Why are Gods, Anthropomorphic?

12 What is and Why are Gods, Anthropomorphic? Anthropomorphic: resembling peoples personalities and physical characteristics Gods - a lot like us Love, Lust, Hate, ect.. Well, what do you think?

13 Usually Gods will resemble the society they control Lets check out what the Anthropologists say Pg 198

14 Types of Gods Pantheon: a collective of gods Usually a Hierarchy!

15 Supreme God Head Dude/Lady in Charge

16 product/b004ah83cq/ ref=avod_yvl_watch_now

17 Attribute Gods Specialized deities: associated with needs of the society

18 Creator Gods Make the world

19 Hinduism & Buddhism Polytheism

20 Hinduism 900 million + adherents, primarily in India (4 th largest) Hinduism is an ancient term for the complex and diverse set of religious beliefs practiced around the Indus River.

21 Hinduism The four sacred texts are ancient hymns called the Vedas, but few Hindus historically could read. Coastlines and river banks most sacred sites. Many, many festivals, often surrounding harvest or spring or the birth of Gods. Brahman is the divine creator but is manifested in literally hundreds of gods, of which Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu are most common.

22 Hinduism Ganges River, Varanasi, India

23 Brahman In the Hindu religion, Brahman is the eternal, unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, and being. The first principle of Indian thought, therefore, is that the ultimate reality is beyond description. It is something that can be experienced only by bringing the mind to a stop; and once experienced, it cannot be described to anyone in terms of the forms of this world. - Joseph Campbell Another important concept is that Hinduism believes in the omnipresence of the Supreme God in every individual. There is no "fall." Man is not cut off from the divine. He requires only to bring the spontaneous activity of his mind to a state of stillness and he will experience that divine principle within him. - Joseph Campbell

24 Hindu Beliefs and Practice Reincarnation the soul is immortal but the body endlessly cycles to higher or lower levels of existence, including the various castes of the rigid social caste system. Yoga the practices or tools used to break from habits of past lives. Includes various meditations and physical practices. The Purusharthas or The Four Aims of Human Life: 1. Dharma (righteousness) 2. Artha (wealth) 3. Kama (desire) 4. Moksha (salvation or liberation) release from the endless cycles.

25 The Trinity of Brahman Brahma (The Creator) - depicted with four faces each continually reciting one of the Vedas. The force of creation and birth. Shiva (The Destroyer) - Shakti or power; the dissolving force in life; centrifugal force; entropy. Vishnu (The Preserver) - peace; balance; Sustainer of life.

26 300 million + adherents primarily in China and S.E. Asia Originated near modern Nepal around 530 BC by prince Siddhartha Guatama. Spread originally in India and Sri Lanka by Magadhan Empire (250 BC). Indian traders brought it to China in 1st century AD. By 6th century it had lost its hold on India, but was now in Korea and Japan.

27 Four Noble Truths: 1. All living beings must endure suffering. 2. Suffering, which is caused by desires (for life), leads to reincarnation. 3. The goal of existence is an escape from suffering and the endless cycle of reincarnation by means of Nirvana. 4. Nirvana is achieved by the Eightfold Path, which includes rightness of understanding, mindfulness, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, Buddhism Karma - your past bad or good actions determine your progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God. Buddhism is in large part a rejection of the Indian caste system. It stresses tolerance, humility, and compassion for all.

28 Experts in ancient Greek culture say that people back then didn't see their thoughts as belonging to them. When ancient Greeks had a thought, it occurred to them as a god or goddess giving an order. Apollo was telling them to be brave. Athena was telling them to fall in love.! Now people hear a commercial for sour cream potato chips and rush out to buy, but now they call this free will. At least the ancient Greeks were being honest. Chuck Palahniuk, Lullaby

29 Goddesses

30 Isis - Egyptian - Great Mother - Women held favorable position

31 Ishtar - Worshiped in Mesopotamia - Arid region, what do you need?

32 Greek Gods watch?v=jd3vclvdnre

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