Building an Empire. Benefits. Costs. Strategy

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1 Building an Empire Strategy Costs Benefits

2 Strategy 1. Having a strong military 2. Strong/ stable government 3. Strong economy Building an Empire Costs O Funds, higher taxes, keeping patriotism/loyalty, high death rates O Higher taxes, risk of assassination, always going to not please someone O Invest a lot of money, unifying currency Benefits O Protection of land, expansion of land, intimidation, new riches from new lands O More people want to join your empire, superiority, fair laws, peace throughout empire O Lower prices of goods, taxes lower, more resources, exchange of culture

3 O Get out your worksheet from yesterday. We are going to go over it for the warm-up today.

4 Byzantine Empire Chapter 11 section 1

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6 Changes in the Empire O In 284 AD, Rome s new Emperor, Diocletian, divided the Empire in half because he felt it was too large for one man to control. O Diocletian controlled the Greek-speaking East because it was far more wealthy than the Latin-speaking West, and appointed a co-ruler to rule the West. O Diocletian will get sick and end his rule. 4 men will compete to rule the empire (sound familiar?) O Constantine will be ruler next and he will once again reunite the empire. His greatest downfall was in 330 CE he moved the capital of the empire to Byzantium which he will name after himself, Constantinople. O After Constantine's death the empire will again be divided, the East would survive, the West would fall.

7 Empire under Constantine, after the Western half fell to invasions Empire Under Diocletian

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9 A New Rome O For nearly 1,000 years after the collapse of the Western Empire, Byzantium and it s flourishing capital would carry on the glory of Rome (from about ). O Roman political institutions like the Senate continued in the Byzantine world as did the basic structure and content of Roman law. O However, culturally the Byzantine Empire was distinct. The Byzantine Empire spoke Greek and was officially a Christian state for preponderance of its history. O The height of the first period of Byzantine history was during the Reign of Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora. O video

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11 Justinian O Justinian, a high ranking Byzantine nobleman, succeeded his uncle to the throne and ruled from CE. O In an effort to recover territory lost by Rome and it s fading glory, he sent his best generals to reclaim land that once belonged to them. O After numerous battles, Justinian s armies won nearly all of the territory that Rome had ever ruled!

12 Roman Law O While Justinian s men were off fighting and expanding territory Justinian decided he wanted to reform Roman Laws. O His panel of experts combed through 400 years of roman laws. It found a number of laws that were outdated and contradictory. O The panel created a single uniform law code known as Justinian Code. O The code decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of Byzantine life including; Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women s rights, and criminal justice. O Although Justinian died in 565, his code served the Byzantine Empire for 900 years

13 O Religion, as well as law, served imperial centralization. Before Justinian, in 380 CE, Christianity had been proclaimed the official religion of the eastern empire. Now all other religions were considered demented and insane.

14 Public Works O Church building was the Emperors greatest passion. O Justinian viewed churches as the most visible sign of the close connection between church and state in his empire. O The crowning glory of his reign was Hagia Sophia, which means holy wisdom in Greek. O When Justinian had rebuilt Hagia Sophia, many visitors hailed it as the most splendid church in the Christian world.

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16 Empress Theodora O The most powerful women in Byzantine history rose from deep poverty. O Early in life Theodora was an actress O She met Justinian and eventually married in 525 O Theodora recognized the rights of women and made sure others did, too. O Through her influence, laws were made protecting women and granting them better legal rights O After she died in 548, he was so depressed that he passed no major laws for the rest of his reign

17 Efforts to preserve the West O Families valued education- specifically classical learning O Latin O Philosophy O Geometry (Euclid) O History (Herodotus) O Literature (Homer) O They helped to preserve many of the great works of Greece and Rome

18 O "Not since the world was made was there... so much wealth as was found in Constantinople. For the Greeks say that twothirds of the wealth of this world is in Constantinople and the other third scattered throughout the world." --Robert of Clari, a French crusader who witnessed the pillage of the city in 1204, describing Constantinople.

19 Justinian s Death O After Justinian s death in 565, the empire suffered countless setbacks. O There were street riots, religious quarrels, palace conspiracies, and foreign dangers. O Each time the empire moved to the edge of collapse, it found some way to revive- only to face another crisis.

20 Hagia Sophia O Video O Shorter video

21 On your paper, in your own words, tell me the significance of OConstantinople OJustinian OJustinian s code OHagia Sophia OEmpress Theodora

LG 1: Explain how Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy were unifying social and political forces in Western Europe and Byzantine Europe and

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