Final Exam Study Guide. Name. A map that shows the landscape features of a place such as mountains, rivers, and lakes

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1 Final Exam Study Guide Name Key Vocabulary- Definition Vocabulary Word 1. The part of a map that shows the meaning of the symbols map key 2. A map that shows the landscape features of a place such as mountains, rivers, and lakes physical map 3. A map that shows information about the past 4. People who study the remains of past cultures 5. The time before humans invented writing historical map archaeologists prehistory 6. Objects made and used by people long ago artifacts 7. Tools and skills that people use to meet their needs and wants technology 8. People who move from place to place in search of food nomads 9. A system of worship and beliefs, including the belief in a god or gods religion 10. The belief in many gods polytheism

2 11. A person believed to be chosen by god as his messenger 12. An organization formed to manage resources and protect people in a society 13. The art and practice of government prophet government politics 14. The study of how human beings behave, how they act together, where they came from, and what makes one group of people different from another anthropology 15. The buying and selling of goods and services in an economy Early people Main Ideas commerce 1. Early civilizations developed near rivers like the Tigris and Euphrates, Nile, and the Indus because these rivers provided them with fresh water, food, and transportation. 2. During the Old Stone Age, also known as the Paleolithic Era, huntergatherers spent many hours each day looking for food. 3. Hunter-gatherers expressed themselves artistically through cave paintings, often featuring the animals they hunted. 4. At the beginning of the New Stone Age, also known as the Neolithic Era, people began to farm the land. This changed the way people

3 lived because it allowed them to settle in one place as they had a water and food source always available. 5. As they got better at farming, a surplus was produced which allowed some people to develop other skills needed in the community. This is called specialization. 6. In addition to farming, Neolithic people began to domesticate animals, taming and training them to serve their needs. 7. Early people also began to barter with other communities for things that they needed like trading cattle for bronze tools. 8. The economy of early cities and villages was still mainly based on farming. 9. Social classes, based on wealth and power, began to form. Slaves made up the lowest level in most societies. The Fertile Crescent 10. Mesopotamia, which developed in the Fertile Crescent, was the world s earliest civilization. The Fertile Crescent gets its name because it is shaped like a crescent moon and has very rich soil. In the Greek language, Mesopotamia means the land between the two rivers. 11. Farmers in Mesopotamia used irrigation to bring water to their crops, thus increasing the amount of productive farmland. 12. Mesopotamians also tamed the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers by building levees to control the floods.

4 13. Mesopotamia s earliest civilization was Sumer. The Sumerians were very advanced and developed the world s first writing system called cuneiform. 14. Sumerians were also very religious and built stepped temples to their gods called ziggurats. 15. Hammurabi, a Babylonian king, created one of the earliest sets of written laws called the Code of Hammurabi. This code contributed to the development of civilization because it listed 282 laws for all to see and follow. Egypt 16. The Nile River flows from the south to the north of Egypt. It begins in the mountains and flows northward and empties into to the Mediterranean Sea. Egypt developed along the banks of the Nile River which provided much needed water and fertile silt for farming. 17. Egyptians were polytheistic, with one of the most important gods being the Sun god, Amon-Re. 18. To help a person reach the afterlife, Egyptians believed the body had to be preserved through mummification. They threw out or discarded the brain because they did not believe it was useful. 19. The pharaoh was the head of the Egyptian government. At the top of the social pyramid (based on wealth and power), he was thought to be a god on Earth. 20. Egyptians of the Old Kingdom constructed pyramids to serve as tombs for departed pharaohs.

5 21. Hatshepsut was the first female pharaoh and built Egypt s economy through trade. 22. Ancient Egyptians created a system of writing called hieroglyphics. Officials called scribes were knew how to read and write. These officials enabled the Egyptians to share and preserve knowledge. 23. Scholars learned the meaning of hieroglyphics by decoding the Rosetta Stone. 24. Ancient Egyptians used papyrus to record messages. 25. Egyptians obtained needed goods and services from neighboring kingdoms through commerce. Judaism 26. Judaism, founded by Abraham, is the world s oldest monotheistic (belief in only one god) religion. 27. Jewish people read the Torah and follow the Ten Commandments. The Israelites fled slavery in Egypt in an event called the Exodus. This event is remembered with the holy day of Passover. 28. A Jewish teacher and religious leader is called a rabbi. 29. The Sabbath is the Jewish weekly day of rest and prayer. 30. Jewish people have been persecuted throughout history and often exiled. The communities living outside their ancient homeland are called the Diaspora.

6 India 31. India is a subcontinent of Asia, separated by the Himalaya Mountains. Monsoons were storms that provided water needed for farming. 32. Hinduism and Buddhism began in India. Both religions believe in dharma, karma, and reincarnation. 33. Today most people in India practice Hinduism, while most Buddhists live in China and southeast Asia. 34. Hindus believe in the caste system which divides society into separate groups called castes. 35. In the caste system, people must remain in their caste for their entire life and can only associate with people of that caste. Dalits performed the dirtiest and hardest jobs. Brahmins were priests at the top of the caste system. 36. Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, an India prince, who gave up everything to search for the best way to live life. 37. Gautama became known as the Buddha or enlightened one. In his Four Noble Truths, he said that you could only find peace by ending suffering, which was caused by wanting things. China 38. Ancient China developed along the Huang or Yellow River. It was also known as China s Sorrow because its frequent flooding brought disaster to the people. 39. The physical geography of China is mountainous and has several major deserts. These landforms isolated China by creating barriers to

7 the outside world. Emperor Shihuangdi of the Qin Dynasty had the Great Wall of China build to keep out invaders from the north. 40. The Shang Dynasty created great bronze works and used oracle bones to predict the future. 41. The Zhou Dynasty used the Mandate of Heaven to rule. This concept states that the emperor receives the right to rule from the gods. 42. Shihuangdi, the ruler of the Qin Dynasty, unified China by reorganizing the government and standardizing written language, currency, and transportation. 43. The Silk Road was a network of trade routes connecting China to Europe. It got its name because silk was China s most valuable export. 44. Confucius was a Chinese philosopher who emphasized a return to a culture of respect and responsibility. Greece 45. Greece s physical geography was very mountainous which led to the rise of isolated city-states. 46. The two main city-states were Athens and Sparta. 47. Athens formed the world s first democracy (political power held by all citizens) and stressed the arts and education. 48. Sparta was ruled by an oligarchy (political power held by a small group of people) and stressed military power. From early childhood, boys were trained to be soldiers. 49. The Greeks believed their gods lived on Mt. Olympus and often got involved in the lives of humans.

8 50. The Olympic games originated as a festival to honor the main Greek god, Zeus. 51. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were famous Greek philosophers. Rome 52. Ancient Rome was built on the Seven Hills along the Tiber River. Romulus and Remus were two brothers whose myth tells the founding of the city of Rome. 53. Early Romans were polytheistic and their beliefs were very similar to the religious beliefs of the Greeks. 54. The patricians were the wealthy class of Roman landowners. 55. The plebeians were the working class artisans, merchants, and farmers. 56. Julius Caesar was assassinated by senators but the republic was still destroyed. 57. Octavian, also known as Augustus, became the first emperor of Rome and began a 200 year period of peace called the Pax Romana. 58. The Twelve Tables were a code of written laws that, like the Ten Commandments, and Hammurabi s Code, established rules of behavior. 59. Romans were expert builders who invented the arch and the dome. They were able to build new architecture because of their discovery of the building material called concrete. In addition, they built the aqueducts to deliver fresh water to cities.

9 Islam 60. Islam (like Judaism and Christianity) is a monotheistic religion. 61. Muhammad was a prophet and the founder of Islam. 62. Followers of Islam are called Muslims and they worship in mosques. 63. The Quran is Islam s holy book and the main source of Islamic teaching. 64. Muslims follow the Five Pillars of Islam, which outline the correct way to live their lives.

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