The Growth of Civilizations

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1 The Growth of Civilizations 1. Classical Greece BC 150 BC 2. Rome and Early Christianity 750 BC AD The Americas 1000 BC AD Empires of China and India 350 BC AD 600

2 Empires of China and India 350 BC to AD The Growth of China 2. Chinese Society and Culture 3. Indian Dynasties 4. Indian Society and Culture BC, strong empires unified much of China and India Under these empires, China and India became prosperous Led to classical periods in their histories, during which China and India developed many of the characteristics that would define their modern times

3 1. The Growth of China Qin and the Han 350 BC to AD 600

4 The Qin Dynasty 300 s BC, the Warring States Period era in which the Qin state began to dominate the other states of China

5 Qin [Ch in] Dynasty Established China s first empire Shi Huangdi (First Emperor) Legalist rule A powerful and efficient government was key to maintaining order Bureaucratic administration Centralized control Military expansion Book burnings targeted Confucianists Buried protestors alive! Built large section of the Great Wall

6 Shi Huangdi s Terra Cotta Army Discovered in the immense army of the dead A Paranoid Emperor in hope of gaining immortality had artisans create a life-size army with chariots, horses, and more than 7,000 soldiers to guard him in the afterlife

7 Shi Huangdi s Terra Cotta Army Army placed in pits around the emperor s tomb

8 Individual Tombs

9 Terra Cotta Soldiers & Cavalrymen Although harsh, Qin policies under Huangdi unified and strengthened China. He undertook massive building projects, including an improved irrigation system, an expanded network of roads and canals, and a defensive wall.

10 Cavalry Despite improvements in trade and transportation, peasants had to pay heavy taxes and some were forced to work on them

11 Individual Soldiers

12 Details of an Individual Soldier

13 Great Wall, Shanhai Pass To strengthen security and protect his empire from outside threats, Shanhai had workers join the separate defensive walls creating the Great Wall of China

14 The Great Wall with Towers Hundreds of thousands of peasants were forced to work on the wall and many people died from the harsh labor.

15 The Han Dynasty When Shi Huangdi died in 210 BC, the Qin Dynasty crumbled in rebellion. Liu Bang, a peasant leader, founded the Han dynasty, one of the greatest dynasties in Chinese history

16 Han Dynasty People of the Han original Chinese Paper invented [105 B.C.E.] Silk Road trade develops; improves life for many Buddhism introduced into China Expanded into Central Asia

17 Liu Bang Tomb His jade suit has 2498 pieces! He ruled with the mandate of heaven (approval of the gods) He re-instituted Confucianism and at the same time kept some Legalist policies to maintain firm control over his empire

18 Emperor Wudi One of the Greatest Han emperors Started public schools. Colonized Manchuria, Korea, & Vietnam. Civil service systempass an exam in the Confucian classics bureaucrats Confucian scholargentry Revival of Chinese landscape painting.

19 Emperor Wudi and Expansion Martial Emperor - expand his empire through warfare Xiongnu-nomads who lived in the grasslands of n. China

20 The Han Decline In 184, a Daoist sect called the Yellow Turbans rebelled and through the empire into chaos Period of Disunion years of warfare

21 2. Chinese Society and Culture Trade Routes of the Ancient World The Silk Road network of trade routes that stretched from China 4,000 miles across the heart of Asia to the Mediterranean Sea

22 Ruins of Jiaohe, Turphan depression. Han dynasty outpost in Central Asia

23 Chang an: The Han Capital

24 Han Artifacts Imperial Seal Han Ceramic House The Han period was a Classical age in China history. During this age, art flourished and science and technology improved life.

25 Ceramics, Later Han Period The Spread of Buddhism to China, led to an increase in Buddhist art and statues

26 Acupuncture Inserting fine needles into the skin at specific points to cure disease and relieve pain

27 3. Indian Dynasties The Maurya Empire 321 BCE 185 BCE The first Indian Empire The seizing of the throne of the kingdom of Magadha

28 Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 First Mauryan emperor Unified northern India. Defeated the Persian general Seleucus. Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement. He feared assassination [like Saddam Hussein] food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc. 301 BCE gave up his throne & became a Jain.

29

30 Kautilya Chandragupta s advisor. Brahmin caste. Wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or the Arthashastra.- statescraft A guide for the king and his ministers: Supports royal power. The great evil in society is anarchy. Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary!

31 Ashoka ( BCE) Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in 262 BCE. Dedicated his life to Buddhism. Built extensive roads. Conflict how to balance Kautilya s methods of keeping power and Buddha s demands to become a selfless person? Considered to be one of India s greatest rulers

32 Asoka s Empire

33 Asoka s law code Edicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan. Written mostly in Sanskrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic. 10 rock edicts. Each pillar [stupa] is high. Buddhist principles dominate his laws.

34 One of Asoka s Stupas

35 Women Under an Asoka tree

36 Turmoil & a power Vacuum: The Maurya Empire is divided into many kingdoms. Kushan invaders from Central Asia Tamils-far south; carried active sea trade with Southeast Asia 220 BCE 320 CE

37 Gupta Empire: 320 CE 647 CE India remained divided into small kingdoms for about 400 years. Then around Ad 320, the Gupta took over northern India.

38 Gupta Rulers Chandra Gupta I r CE Great King of Kings founder Chandra Gupta II r CE Profitable trade with the Mediterranean world! Hindu revival. White Huns invade 450 CE

39 Chandra Gupta 11

40 4. Indian Society and Culture Fa-Hsien: Life in Gupta India Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5c. He was following the path of the Buddha. He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including "untouchability," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor.

41 International Trade Routes during the Guptas

42 Extensive Trade: spices gold & ivory

43 Kalidasa The greatest of Indian poets. His most famous play was Shakuntala. During the reign of Chandra Gupta II.

44 Gupta Art Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.

45 500 healing plants identified Plastic Surgery 1000 diseases classified Printed medicinal guides Medicine Kalidasapoet and playright Gupta Achievements Literature Sakuntala C-sections performed Inoculations Gupta India Solar Calendar Decimal System Concept of Zero Mathematics PI = Hindu-Arabic-Indian scholars created the numerals we use today Astronomy The earth is round Aryabhata

46 The Decline of the Guptas Invasion of the White Huns in the 4c signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at first, the Guptas defeated them. After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7c

47 Bhartrhari 5c India court poet and philosopher. Knowledge is man's crowning mark, A treasure secretly buried, The source of luxury, fame, and bliss, A guru most venerable, A friend on foreign journeys, The pinnacle of divinity. Knowledge is valued by kings beyond wealth--- When he lacks it, a man is a brute. What does this poem suggest about the importance of knowledge? How does Mr. Schenk feel about knowledge?

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