India s First Empires

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1 Section 1 India s First Empires The Mauryas and the Guptas establish empires, but neither unifies India permanently.

2 1 India s First Empires The Mauryan Empire Is Established Chandragupta Maurya Seizes Power In 321 B.C., Chandragupta Maurya seizes power, starts Mauryan Empire Chandragupta Maurya Unifies North India Chandragupta defeats Seleucus I; north India united for first time Chandragupta uses taxes to support his large army Running the Empire Chandragupta s chief adviser is Kautilya, a priest Chandragupta creates bureaucratic government He divides the government to make it easier to rule Continued...

3 1 continued The Mauryan Empire Is Established Life in the City and the Country A Greek ambassador writes glowing praise of the empire Chandragupta s son rules from 301 to 269 B.C., 32 years Asoka Chandragupta s grandson, brings the empire to its height Asoka Promotes Buddhism After a bloody war with Kalinga, Asoka promotes Buddhism and peace Preaches religious toleration accepting people of different religions Builds roads, with wells along them

4 1 A Period of Turmoil The Breakup of the Mauryan Empire Asoka dies in 232 B.C.; kingdoms in central India soon break away The Andhra Dynasty dominates central India for centuries Northern India receives immigrants from Greece, other parts of Asia Tamils a people living in southern India remain separate and frequently war with rival peoples

5 1 The Gupta Empire Is Established Chandra Gupta Builds an Empire Chandra Gupta marries into kingship in north India in A.D. 320 Starts Gupta Empire India s second empire; flowering of Indian civilization, especially Hindu culture His son Samudra Gupta expands empire with conquest Continued...

6 1 continued The Gupta Empire Is Established Daily Life in India Majority of Indians are farmers; entire family raises crops together Families are patriarchal headed by the eldest male Farmers have to contribute work to government and pay heavy taxes Some Tamil families are matriarchal led by mother rather than father Continued...

7 1 continued The Gupta Empire Is Established Height of the Gupta Empire Chandra Gupta II rules from A.D He defeats the Shakas and adds western coast to empire Gupta Empire sees flourishing of arts, religion, and science After Chandra Gupta II dies, the empire declines

8 Section 2 Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture Indian religions, culture, and science evolve and spread to other regions through trade.

9 2 Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture Buddhism and Hinduism Change Traditional Hindu and Buddhist Beliefs Hinduism blends Aryan and other beliefs; belief in many gods To Buddhists, desire causes suffering but suffering can be overcome Continued...

10 2 continued Buddhism and Hinduism Change A More Popular Form of Buddhism Belief in bodhisattvas develops potential Buddhas who save humanity Mahayana sect Buddhists accepting new doctrines of worship, salvation Theravada sect Buddhists who follow original teachings of Buddha Wealthy Buddhist merchants build stupas stone structures over relics Continued...

11 2 continued Buddhism and Hinduism Change A Hindu Rebirth Hinduism is remote from people by time of Mauryan Empire Hinduism moves toward monotheism; gods part of one divine force Chief gods: Brahma creator of the world Vishnu preserver of the world Shiva destroyer of the world

12 2 Achievements of Indian Culture Literature and the Performing Arts Kalidasa poet and dramatist, one of India s greatest writers His skillful and emotionally stirring plays still popular Madurai writing academies create literature; 2,000 Tamil poems survive Drama and dance troupes gain popularity and travel widely Continued...

13 2 continued Achievements of Indian Culture Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine Ocean trade leads to advances in astronomy Indian astronomers in Gupta Empire prove that world is round Mathematicians develop idea of zero and decimal system Doctors write medical guides and make advances in surgery

14 2 The Spread of Indian Trade India s Valuable Resources India has spices, diamonds, precious stones, and good quality wood Overland Trade, East and West Trade routes called Silk Roads connect Asia and Europe Indians build trading posts to take advantage of the Silk Roads Sea Trade, East and West Indian merchants carry goods to Rome by sea Merchants trade by sea with Africa, Arabia, China, Southeast Asia Continued...

15 2 continued The Spread of Indian Trade Effects of Indian Trade Increased trade leads to rise of banking Bankers lend money to merchants, careful of degree of risk Increased trade spreads Indian culture to other places Trade brings Hinduism, Buddhism to other lands

16 Section 3 Han Emperors in China

17 3 Han Emperors in China The Han Restore Unity to China Troubled Empire In Qin Dynasty peasants resent high taxes and harsh labor, rebel Liu Bang Founds the Han Dynasty Liu Bang defeats Xiang Yu, a rival for power, and founds Han Dynasty Han Dynasty begins in 202 B.C., lasts 400 years Han Dynasty has great influence on Chinese people, culture Liu Bang establishes centralized government a central authority rules Liu Bang lowers taxes and reduces punishments to keep people happy Continued...

18 3 continued The Han Restore Unity to China The Empress Lü Liu Bang dies in 195 B.C.; wife Lü seizes control of empire Empress Lü rules for her young son, outlives him Palace plots and power plays occur throughout Han Dynasty The Martial Emperor Liu Bang s great-grandson Wudi rules from 141 to 87 B.C. Martial Emperor Wudi defeats Xiongnu (nomads) and mountain tribes Colonizes Manchuria, Korea, and as far south as what is now Vietnam

19 3 A Highly Structured Society Emperor s Role Chinese believe their emperor has authority to rule from god Believe prosperity reward of good rule; troubles reveal poor rule Structures of Han Government Complex bureaucracy runs Han government People pay taxes and supply labor, military service Government uses peasant labor to carry out public projects Continued...

20 3 continued A Highly Structured Society Confucianism, the Road to Success Wudi s government employs 130,000; bureaucracy of 18 ranks of jobs Civil service jobs government jobs obtained through examinations Job applicants begin to be tested on knowledge of Confucianism Wudi favors Confucian scholars, builds school to train them Only sons of wealthy can afford expensive schooling Civil service system works well, continues until 1912

21 3 Han Technology, Commerce, and Culture Technology Revolutionizes Chinese Life Invention of paper in A.D. 105 helps spread education Collar harness, plow, wheelbarrow improve farming Agriculture Versus Commerce As population grows, farming regarded as important activity Government allows monopolies control by one group over key industries Techniques for producing silk become state secret as profits increase

22 3 The Han Unifies Chinese Culture Bringing Different Peoples Under Chinese Rule To unify empire, Chinese government encourages assimilation Assimilation integrating conquered peoples into Chinese culture Writers encourage unity by recording Chinese history Women s Roles Wives, Nuns, and Scholars Most women work in the home and on the farm Some upper-class women are educated, run shops, practice medicine

23 3 The Fall of the Han and Their Return The Rich Take Advantage of the Poor Large landowners gain control of more and more land Gap between rich and poor increases Wang Mang Overthrows the Han Economic problems and weak emperors cause political instability In A.D. 9, Wang Mang seizes power and stabilizes empire Wang Mang is assassinated in A.D. 23; Han soon regain control The Later Han Years Peace restored, Later Han Dynasty lasts until A.D. 220

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