6 th Grade History Study Guide Chapter 7: Rome

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1 6 th Grade History Study Guide Chapter 7: Rome Name Student # Legend says that twin brothers, Romulus and Remus, were orphans who were found floating in a basket by a wolf and adopted by a shepherd and his wife. o After they were grown, they decided to build a city on the spot where they were found. They argued about the spot, and Romulus killed Remus. Romulus buried his brother and built the city on top of his grave. o Legend says that Romulus was the first ruler of Rome and kept an empty throne next to him in memory of his brother. Rome: The City Early Year of Rome: o First settled by Latins from central Europe o Next conquered by the Etruscans from northern Italy o Next Etruscan king Tarquin the Proud was overthrown by Latin nobles, who now called themselves Romans Italy: o Shaped like a boot o Very mountainous Rome: The Republic Republic = belonging to the people; in a republic, the people are responsible for the government Patricians: members of the noble class; at first, only citizens who could vote Plebeians: common workers and foreigners; not allowed to vote

2 Plebeians protested and were given a governing body called the Assembly Patricians body was the Senate and was governed by consuls o Only the Senate could make laws, but the Assembly asked them to write down the laws for everyone to see o Plebeians were given veto power, which means I forbid ; they could stop the actions of the Senate by shouting this Eventually plebeians were given more rights and got an equal say in government. The Roman republic was protected by a strong army. o Soldiers were divided into groups of several thousand called legions. o Soldiers in those units were called legionaries. o Rome began to conquer the rest of Italy and the west. Over a period of 125 years they fought three wars with the North African city of Carthage, called the Punic Wars. The Second Punic War The Second Punic War was the most famous because it was fought against a man named Hannibal. o His plan was to invade Italy and get the Italians help in defeating Rome. o He crossed the snowy Alps with 40,000 men and war elephants. The animals scared horses and soldiers. However, many men and elephants did not survive crossing the Alps, shrinking the size of Hannibal s army. He fought the Romans but could not defeat them. o Roman general Scipio defeated Hannibal by ignoring him and attacking Hannibal s hometown of Carthage. Hannibal did not want to be killed by the Romans, so he killed himself, and the Second Punic War was over.

3 o Rome went on to conquer Greece and other parts of Alexander the Great s old empire. o When the Roman soldiers returned home, they found out that they had lost their property. They moved to the cities, but the work was being done by slaves. The poor soldiers sold their votes to the rich nobles, which made the republic weak. Building roads: The Romans built roads all over their empire to connect the different parts of it. o The roads carried goods like money, grain, slaves, and precious metals. These items were used as tribute, or taxes paid to a ruler by conquered people. o Roman culture and the culture of other lands were shared along the roads. o Eventually the length of the Roman roads would go around the earth 10 times. The Collapse of the Republic Julius Caesar o Born in 100 BC to a patrician family o Became a high leader in the government and the army o Conquered Gaul and lands that today are all or parts of Switzerland, France, Spain, Holland, Belgium, and Germany, even Britain o Next he took over Rome itself. He disobeyed orders to disband his army at the Rubicon River and fought against the Roman leader Pompey. He fought him for 4 years before defeating him. At the point the Senate proclaimed Caesar to be the dictator of Rome. o Supposed to last for 10 years, but he quickly changed the rule so he could be dictator for life

4 o He limited the power of the corrupt Senate & gave citizenship and seats in the Senate to people from Italian territories o Some Romans liked the way he governed, but others were angry with him. They thought Rome was no longer a true republic since it had a dictator. The Ides of March o On the 15th day of March, two of Caesar s enemies hid in the Senate chamber with knives and stabbed Caesar to death. The enemies were his former friends, Brutus and Cassius. The Julian Calendar o Caesar realized there are not 365 days in a year, but actually 365 ¼. Months and seasons were all out of alignment, so he fixed it by creating a new calendar. The first year (46 BC) was used to straighten everything out it had 445 days! After that, every fourth year would have an extra day added on. Those years are called Leap Years. Rome: The Empire Cicero: a member of the Roman Senate and a famous orator He studied rhetoric (persuasive language) and gave great speeches He was elected as consul (highest elected office) and kept Rome from being overtaken by someone wanting to create a dictatorship He was killed by Mark Antony in 43 BC. He s remembered as one of Rome s greatest patriots. Octavian: adopted son of Julius Caesar Other names he gave himself: o Princeps = first citizen o Augustus = revered one He reorganized the army and government

5 He brought a period of peace to Rome called Pax Romana o This brought less war and more emphasis on learning, architecture, & religion o It lasted about 200 years Learning in the Pax Romana: o Wealthy boys taught by pegadogues o Boys became citizens at age 16 Special ceremony held at the marketplace, called the Forum Received the official citizen s garment a loose, one-piece robe called a toga, and also a man s haircut and his first shave o Important writers during Octavian s rule: Virgil wrote the Aeneid about the founding of Rome Livy wrote a detailed history of Rome Architecture in the Pax Romana: o Concrete: Romans were first to use this mixture of gravel and sand to make buildings stronger o Arches: enhanced Roman architecture (made it look nicer) o Aqueducts: raised troughs that carried water through the city o Barrel vault: several arches built back-to-back to make tunnels o Domes: several arches put together Pantheon: largest domed building in Rome; still there today over 14 stories high Religion in the Pax Romana: o Polytheistic: worshipped the same gods as the Greeks, just with different names o Some Romans also followed other religions they got from their territories: Epicureanism: believed there was no God or life after death; live for the present and for pleasure and happiness only

6 Stoicism: believed that duty is all that mattered in life; very serious about bravery and obeying laws; popular with Roman soldiers Christ in the Roman World The time of the Roman Empire was the perfect time for Christ to live and die. o Old Testament said the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem; Caesar Augustus ordered a census to bring people to their hometowns, which is why Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem o Christ s death by crucifixion was the common method of execution during Roman times Nero: Roman emperor who blamed Christians for burning Rome; put many Christians to death by crucifixion or burning gladiators: fought in the Colosseum against other men or animals; a form of entertainment Diocletian: Roman emperor who fed Christians to the lions catacombs: underground tombs where Christians worshipped Diocletian divided the Roman Empire, and it eventually was overtaken by neighboring tribes. The Romans are remembered for their bravery, architecture, and government.

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