Chapter 5: The Roman Empire

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1 Chapter 5: The Roman Empire Section 1: Pax Romana - Period of peace from BC to AD - prospered, and communications improved, activities flourished - Pax Romana = I. Augustus: The First Citizen of Rome A. brought an end to the civil war B. 27 BC - announces desire to restore the republic and share power with the C. Took the title which means D. First Roman ruler to be called an E. Octavian also known as and II. Augustus and the Pax Romana A. Reign: BC - AD B. Economic Prosperity 1. remained livelihood of most people 2. Established a stable 3. Freed the Mediterranean Sea of 4. Imported luxury items 5. reached it s peak C. Stability and Order to Government 1. above Social Class 2. Created and services 3. Established a Service 4. Provinces 5. Ordered census-taking D. Social Reform 1. virtues of 2. Laws punished and placed limits on E. Successors of Augustus 1. Left no plan for choosing a 2. Men related to occupied imperial office 3. Roman Peace held intact by the Roman 4. Emperors gain popularity by offering and Section 2: Roman Culture and Achievement - Rome: a of ancient cultures

2 - culture influenced almost every aspect of Roman life - made significant contributions to art and philosophy, the in law and politics I. Contribution to Law A. Rome protected the individual and of its citizens B. citizens should have rights before the law II. Latin Literature and Language - Modeled their literature after the - Latin literature expresses the life and of the Roman people BC - leading political figure, outstanding scholar, author, lawyer, statesman, orator A. Poetry of the Augustan Age 1. Virgil - a) BC b) of Rome c) wrote the d) works exalted Rome as the 2. Horace a) BC b) friend of Virgil c) of the Augustan Age d) Warned of the danger of and e) praised the simple virtues of,, and 3. Ovid a) BC - AD b) and love c) Metamorphoses d) Augustus banned Ovid s writings from the 3 public libraries, and exiled him from the city because B. History 1. (59BC - AD17) C. Later Roman Writers 1. More and pessimistic 2. favored the over life under the self centered emperors III. Greek Contributions A. Centers of learning flourished B. Plutarch (45-125)

3 1. biographies that compared the lives of important Greek and Roman men C. 1. encyclopedias became the accepted medical authority of the Middle Ages D. Ptolemy (85-165) 1. promoted the theory that earth is the center of the universe IV. Art and Architecture A. Leave room for notes V. The Roman Games A. favorite events 1. races 2. contests 3. fights B. kept out of trouble VI. Religious Beliefs - originally worshipped gods of - after coming into contact with, associated their gods with those of Mt. Olympus - eventually turned to to find happiness and meaning in life A. Epicureanism 1. Define: B. Stoicism 1. Define: C. Eastern Influence 1. Roman emperor held title of or greatest priest - emperor worship Section 3: The Introduction of Christianity Mrs. Hurst will give you more information than the book has on this topic in class. I. Summarize the World Made Ready - with people and dates

4 II. Summarize The Turning Point of History - with people and dates III. The Spread of the Gospel A. Jewish Persecution B. The Apostle Paul 1. - AD born into a home, inherited citizenship 3. initially a of the Christians IV. Church Organizational Development A. early church met in private homes for fellowship and worship B. earliest leaders were the directly chosen by V. Persecution of the Church A. Romans believed that the claims of Christ on His followers set Christians at odds with the state and society B. Christians and a threat to the Roman way of life C. first official Roman persecution of Christianity began under the emperor (r ) D. From the time of Nero to AD 250 the persecution was and E. Beginning in 250, persecution became F. the last and most widespread Roman persecution occurred during the reign of (r ) VI. From Imperial Persecutions to Acceptance A Constantine made Christianity legal B. challenged the deity of Christ C affirmed the deity of Christ and the doctrine of the Trinity D. (r ) - Christianity became the official religion of Rome Section 4: Collapse of the Roman Empire I. Reason for Decline A. third century - series of crises shook foundation 1. political - Summarize 2. economic - Summarize 3. social - Summarize B. fourth & fifth centuries - barbarian invaders enter Rome

5 II. Reform and Reorganization Attempts A. Summarize III. Barbarian Invasions A. Summarize IV. The Fall of Rome A move into the Italian peninsula and plunder Rome 1. eventually settle in B. moved into northern Gaul C. and crossed over into Britain D. invaded Roman territory 1. Romans able to stop their advance E. - raided and pillaged Rome F. AD - Rome ended the long period of Roman rule - placed non- Roman on emperor s throne in west

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