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1 Copyright Clara Kim All rights reserved.

2 Roman Legion Divided into infantry and cavalry 5,000 Soldiers Every citizen had to serve for 10 years

3 Roman Legion Divided into smaller groups of 80 men called a century

4 Roman Power Grows Roman power grew slowly and steadily Eventually conquered all of Italy

5 The Defeated People Rome was lenient to the people they conquered They were allowed to be full citizens if they lived on the Tiber Those who lived further away had citizenship but could not vote.

6 The Punic Wars Eventually Rome and Carthage began to fight over trade in the Mediterranean Sea They fought 3 battles

7

8 The First Punic War Fought over Sicily for 23 years Carthage lost This was Rome s first province

9 The Second Punic War Carthage was led by HANNIBAL a brilliant general. He used 50,000 men, 9,000 cavalry and 60 elephants. To surprise Rome he went through the Alps

10

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12 The Second Punic War For 10 years he pillaged northern Italy Finally a Roman general name SCIPIO defeated Hannibal.

13 The Third Punic War By this time, Carthage was no longer a threat. Cato a influential senator reminded them of the terror Hannibal laid on Italy. Romans destroy Carthage and sold all of Carthaginians into slavery!

14 Rome In Control Victory in the Punic Wars gave Rome control of the Mediterranean

15 From Republic to Empire Copyright Clara Kim All rights reserved.

16 After the Punic Wars Increasing wealth and expanding empire brought many problems The most serious problem was the widening gap between the rich and the poor.

17 1 Thousands of slaves were captured and made to work on Latifundias = huge estates.

18 2 Thousands of Soldiers returned from war without jobs or homes. They moved to cities like Rome to find work. They became part of the poor class.

19 Two Brothers Tiberius and Gracchus tried to help Rome s poor by proposing to: Give land to the poor Limit the size of estates (latifundias) The senators felt threatened and the two brothers were murdered

20 3 Rich Romans became corrupt with money and luxury and tensions between the rich and the poor caused a civil war!

21 Julius Caesar Eventually an ambitious and daring leader emerged to bring order to Rome

22 Triumvirate The First Triumvirate = Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey Triumvirate = a group of three leaders working together in government He conquered all of Gaul in France

23 Caesar s Reforms He became the absolute ruler of Rome = he had total power. He expanded the Senate by adding his friends Created jobs for the poor and expanded land Raised pay for soldiers

24 Caesar s Assassination

25 Why did Julius Caesar have enemies among the rich and powerful? Military victories = very popular with the Romans. His soldiers were very loyal to their leader so Senate was afraid of his popularity and power. Pompey and some senators tried to take over power and Caesar defeated Pompey. After the civil war, Caesar was given more power.

26 Why did Julius Caesar have enemies among the rich and powerful? Senators didn't trust anyone who wanted to be a dictator and take their power. They thought he was trying to end the Republic. Caesar tried to get control of the senate by adding more senators who were loyal to him. Therefore, the senators felt their power was slipping even further. He granted citizenship to many Greeks. This made many Roman citizens angry.

27 Rise of Imperial Rome Octavian = adopted son of Caesar defeats Mark Antony (Caesar s best general) Accepts title of Augustus = exalted one and becomes Rome s first Emperor. During his rule Rome enters a time of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana or Roman Peace

28 The Age of Augustus (Imperial Rome)

29 A Vast and Powerful Empire Octavian the adopted son of Julius Caesar accepts the title Augustus (exalted one) During his rule, Rome reaches its peak in power and reaches a time of great peace From 27 B.C. to 180 A.D there will be a period of 207 years of peace called the Pax Romana

30 Economy during Pax Romana Agriculture is the most important industry of the Roman empire Whole empire used uniform silver coin called a denarius which made trade easier Had a huge network of roads that connected all the way to Persia and Russia Created prosperity and stability

31 Government of Pax Romana Augustus was a great emperor who: stabilized the frontier glorified Rome with splendid public buildings Set up a civil service A civil service paid workers from the Plebeian class to: Manage grain supply Collect taxes Manage a postal system Government was very stable

32 Emperor Succession Peace and prosperity depended on orderly transfer of power There was no written law for how to transfer the emperor s power when he died Five good emperors solved this problem only for a little time.

33 Pictures Cited Slide 1 Slide Slide Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 PortsPuniques.jpg/800px-Carthage-1958-PortsPuniques.jpg Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Slide 13 Slide 14

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