THE PUNIC WARS. As Rome was growing, a rivalry developed with Carthage.

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1 Chap. 9 Lesson 2

2 Intro: Starting in about 500 B.C., the Romans began extending their rule throughout the Italian Peninsula. The Romans fought many wars against neighboring cultures. With each victory the amount of land under Roman rule grew. By 264 B.C., Rome controlled nearly all the Italian Peninsula.

3 THE PUNIC WARS As Rome was growing, a rivalry developed with Carthage. Carthage is a wealthy Phoenician city-state in Northern Africa. Carthage controlled an empire that stretched across northern Africa and west to Spain.

4 THE PUNIC WARS For 118 years (Between 264 B.C. to 146 B.C.) Rome fought 3 wars with Carthage for control of trade in the Mediterranean Sea. 1 st Punic war lasted for 23 years (Between 264 B.C. to 241 B.C.) 2 nd Punic war lasted for 17 years (Between 218 B.C. to 201 B.C.) 3 rd Punic war lasted for 3 years (Between 149 B.C. to 146 B.C.)

5 THE PUNIC WARS War Result 1 st Punic War Rome gained control of the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. 2 nd Punic War Carthage invaded the Italian Peninsula. 3 rd Punic War The Romans destroyed the city of Carthage. They left it in ruins and enslaved the people.

6 THE PUNIC WARS Victory in the Punic Wars brought the western Mediterranean Sea and Coastal areas of Spain and Africa under Roman Control. In the east, Rome has conquered Greece, Macedonia, and parts of southwestern Asia. The Romans divided their vast new lands into provinces. The conquered people had to pay taxes to Rome, and many were slaves.

7 THE PUNIC WARS Money that came from the provinces made upper-class Romans richer. Slaves who were taken to Rome made many in the lower class poorer. Plebeians lost their jobs or lands as their work was turned over to slaves. This caused terrible conflict between rich and poor romans.

8 THE PUNIC WARS What were the benefits and drawbacks of Rome winning the Punic Wars? 1. More Land 2. More Money 3. Slave Labor Benefits Drawbacks 1. Lower-class Romans became poorer when they lost their work to slave labor. 2. Conflict arose between rich Romans and poor Romans.

9 The Civil Wars The provinces brought great wealth to Rome. Yet, the Romans found it difficult to agree on how to govern faraway lands. For 50 years, leaders struggled for control of the republic in a series of civil wars. At this point Rome is showing distress. Leaders struggling for power. Conflict between the rich and poor. As a result there was s significant change that occurred in the Roman Government Leaders became dictators like a man names Sulla who became dictator in 82 B.C. and rules for 3 years, not just the 6 months allowed by the Roman law during emergencies.

10 The Civil Wars After Sulla (a Roman Dictator) retired in 79 B.C., leadership returned to the Consuls. Pompey and Cicero led as consuls in the years to follow. Not just the 1 year they were supposed to serve according to Roman law. In 60 B.C. a leader named Julius Caesar was elected as consul. Caesar formed an army and conquered a land named Gaul (which is now France). Caesar was very popular with the citizens of Rome and his soldiers.

11 The Civil Wars: Julius Caesar VS the Roman Senate After conquering Gaul, Caesar was preparing to head back home to Rome. At this time some Senators began to fear Caesars return. They thought that Caesar might try to take over the Roman government. Caesar was warned to give up his army and not bring his soldiers across the Rubicon River. The Rubicon river separates Gaul and the Italian Peninsula. As a result to this warning, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River and conquered the Italian Peninsula in 60 days! Caesars leadership ability and military victories convinced the senate that he should rule as dictator for 10 years.

12 The Civil Wars: Julius Caesar VS the Roman Senate As dictator, Julius Caesar proved to be a strong and effective leader. He changed the Senate so it better represented the Roman people. He improved many lives by issuing decrees that helped the poor. He created new jobs. And he gave citizenship to more people, including those from the provinces.

13 The Civil Wars: Julius Caesar VS the Roman Senate At this point Caesar was gaining more power and this caused the senators to worry that Caesar might want to change the concept of the Republic and make it go back to being a Monarchy. They believed Caesar wanted to become King So, they plotted to kill Caesar.

14 The Civil Wars: Julius Caesar VS the Roman Senate On March 15 th, 44 B.C., a day known as the Ides of March on the Roman Calendar, a small group of senators stabbed Caesar in a Senate meeting. Caesars death led to another period of civil war and unrest in Rome.

15 The End of the Republic After Julius Caesar was killed, Mark Anthony, a general in the Roman army, became Rome s new dictator. Mark Anthony wanted to carry out Caesar s plans for Rome.

16 The End of the Republic When Julius Caesar was alive, he had adopted his greatnephew, Octavian. After Mark Anthony was ruled for almost a year as dictator he was challenged by Octavian to be the leader of Rome. Octavian, Mark Anthony, and a general, named Lepidus, agreed to form a triumvirate. This did not work well especially since the rulers began to struggle for power.

17 The End of the Republic Anthony and Octavian worked together to defeat Caesar s enemies in the Senate and to remove Lepidus from power. Then a civil war began for control of Rome and its provinces. Anthony s army opposed that of Octavian. Anthony made alliances with Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, so they can both defeat Octavian. In the end Octavian defeated both Anthony & Cleopatra when he took his army and conquered Egypt. Anthony and Cleopatra both died a few days after their defeat.

18 The End of the Republic Octavian was the unchallenged ruler of all Roman lands. The Roman Senate gave Octavian the title Augustus, which means respected one. Octavian was Rome s first emperor. The idea of the republic was important to the people of Rome. The Roman republic ended when Octavian s rule began. Octavian did make sure that in some ways the government remained representative.

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