Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity

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1 Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity

2 Early People 800 BC Latin people share the peninsula with the Etruscans Etruscans rule north and central Italy Romans take much from them: their alphabet; the arch for construction

3 The Republic 509 BC Rome drives out the Etruscans Beginning of the Roman State Republic; belongs to the people People choose their officials

4 Structuring the Republic Senate-the most powerful body Patricians-serve for life; hereditary, wealthy landholders Two consuls-one year Dictator-wartime; six months Plebians-elect tribunes; veto

5 Structuring Society Patriarchal; father has absolute power Women can own property; businesses Most stayed at home with families All children were educated Polytheistic; feasts and festivals Jupiter

6 The Republic Grows By 270 BC Rome controls most of the peninsula Legions; 5000 citizensoldiers Rome builds a network of roads for trade and military use The Appian Way

7 Rome s Early Road System

8 From Republic to Empire Conquest and trade brings Rome into contact with Carthage As Rome expands westward, there s conflict BC they fight the Punic Wars

9 First; Rome wins Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia Second 218 BC; Hannibal marches over the Alps into Italy Romans send army to Carthage; Hannibal returns and is defeated Third completely destroys Carthage The Punic Wars

10 Conquest and trade made Rome rich New class of wealthy bought huge estates Conquest brought slaves into Rome to work on the estates Slave labor hurt small farmers; debt, loss of land Impact at Home

11 The Republic Declines Civil wars between the senate and political reformers Slave revolts Legions became professional armies loyal to commanders 48-44BC Julius Caesar pushes reforms; assassinated More civil wars

12 The Age of Empire Antony and Octavian hunt down the killers They quarrel and Octavian becomes Emperor in 31 BC Takes the name Augustus and rules as an absolute ruler un 14 AD

13 Stable Government Kept the senate in place Civil service based on merit Allowed selfgovernment for cities Census; taxes; postal service; coinage; public works; all this leads to Pax Romana

14 Pax Romana 200 years; peace, unity, order, prosperity Roman legions maintain the roads; Roman fleets control the seas Trade flourishes along the Silk Road

15 Bread and Circuses Gladiator contests and chariot races; free grain given to the city s poor Paid for by taxes to pacify restless mobs Covers underlying social and economic problems Circus Maximus

16 Roman Achievements Greco-Roman blending; literature, history, philosophy Law code; rules of evidence; jury Architecture is grand; columns and arches Excel at engineering; aqueducts move water miles

17 The Colosseum

18 Rise of Christianity Rome tolerates religions Need to acknowledge the emperor and their gods, too Zealots are waiting for a messiah to free them Rebellion in Judea The Destruction of Jerusalem

19 A New Religion Outgrowth of Judaism Jesus and his apostles Monotheistic Rome sees it as a threat to their rule Jesus is put to death His apostles spread his teachings

20 Rome Accepts Christianity The conversion of Saul spreads Christianity Paul spreads the message in spite of persecution of Christians Christians blamed for trouble in the empire 313 AD Constantine makes it the official religion of the empire

21 The Empire Declines Political violence and instability High taxes to support the army Farmland loses its productivity Farmers leave their land Diocletian tries to stop the decay

22 Diocletian Splits the Empire

23 Byzantium

24 Barbarian Invasions

25 The Fall of Rome Political, economic, and social decay Migrating nomads attack Rome is sacked In 434 Attila, the Scourge of God, attacks In 476 the emperor is ousted

26 Istanbul

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