2 Origins of Rome At the same time that Athens and Sparta were becoming world powers, Rome got it s beginnings It started as a small village on the hills overlooking the Tiber River on the Apennine (or Italian) Peninsula
3 Geography and Rome Rome is located in the center of the Italian peninsula where fertile plains supported a growing population. Why do you think this location helped Rome expand through out the Mediterranean world?
5 Creation Myth Rome was said to have been created by two twin boys named Romulus and Remus They were orphans who were raised by a She-Wolf
6 Early in it s history Rome was conquered and ruled over by a group of people from the north called the Etruscans The Etruscans were a monarchy credited with building Rome into the main trading city on the Apennine Peninsula
7 The Roman Republic: In 509 B.C.E., the Romans drove out the Etruscans and set up a new government, which they called a republic. A republic is a type of government where officials are chosen by the people. 3 Important Groups in the Roman Republic: The Senate The Assembly of the Centuries The Assembly of the Tribes
8 In the early republic, a group called the senate dominated the government. Its members were called patricians. The word patrician comes from the Latin word pater, which means father. Patricians The wealthy land owning class during the early Roman Republic.
9 The Roman Senate The Senate was the most powerful group in the government. Composed of three hundred patricians Controlled public funds Controlled political appointments Determined foreign policy Often acted as a court
10 The Assembly of the Centuries Made up of Roman Soldiers The soldiers were divided into voting units called centuries. Each century used majority rule to determine how the centuries 1 vote would be cast This was the main group which declared war or peace
11 The Assembly of the Tribes Made up primarily of common citizens or Plebians Plebians included freed slaves, peasant farmers, and those dependent on patricians. grouped into 35 tribes according to where they lived They were denied many rights in the early Republic.
12 The Roman Republic: Little by little, the plebeians, gained some political powers. These included the right to elect their own officials, called tribunes. The tribunes could veto, or block, laws that they felt harmed plebeians. Tribunes would become some of the most powerful leaders in Rome
13 Constitution Plebeian influence also resulted in the creation of a Roman Constitution A Constitution is a list of laws or rules which outlines how a government is organized. This was done to limit the power of the Patricians, protect the rights of the Plebeians, and to stabilize the Government
14 Why is the Roman Republic Significant to us? The Roman Republic directly influences American Government today The framers of the United States Constitution adopted many Roman ideas of government, such as the senate, the veto, checks on political power, term limits, and the use of a Constitution.
15 Expansion in Italy By about 270 B.C.E., Rome controlled most of the Italian peninsula. Skilled diplomacy Why was Rome s expansion in Italy successful? Loyal, well-trained army Treated defeated enemies fairly Gave rights to conquered people
16 Rome Conquers Greece By 168 b.c.e. the Romans had conquered Macedonia and much of the rest of Greece At the battle of Cynoscephalae the Roman s Legion defeated the Greek Phalanx
17 How were the Roman Legions able to defeat the Greek Phalanx? The legions were more mobile The legion used a variety of weapons rather than only spear and shield The organization of the legion allowed for command to remain even when they took heavy losses
18 How was Greco-Roman civilization formed? After conquering the Greeks, the Roman s adopted many Greek ideas as their own The blending of Roman, Hellenistic, and Greek traditions produced the Greco-Roman civilization. This was done to add the Glory of Greek and Macedonian achievements to their own Trade, travel, and conquest helped spread this Greco- Roman Civilization all over the world
19 Roman Religion The Roman religion is one piece of evidence which shows us how Greece influenced Rome Their polytheistic religion was essentially the same as the Greeks except with different names for the Gods and Goddesses = Zeus
20 Winning an Empire After gaining control of the Italian peninsula, Rome began building an Empire or large group of states controlled by one supreme government The Romans followed a policy of imperialism, establishing control over foreign lands and peoples. Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, Egypt, and Israel all became Roman provinces, or lands under Roman imperial rule.
21 The Roman Empire at Its Height By 133 B.C.E., Roman power extended from Spain to Egypt and controlled all of the Mediterranean world
22 Collapse of the Republic Rise of the Caesars Rome grew so large that it became difficult to control As a result several Civil Wars broke out within Rome A Civil War is when two sides from the same country fight against each other In one Civil War, the Roman Senate (who wanted to maintain control like they always had) fought against the Roman Populares, a group who worked to help the plebeians and thus gained support as they became popular
23 Julius Caesar One of the leaders of the Populares was a man named Julius Caesar He conquered much of Spain and Britain with out the permission of the Senate which made him an enemy to the Senate but a Hero to Rome The Senate ordered him back to Rome to be punished for acting without permission Caesar came back with his Army, and after a long Civil War, was declared Perpetual Dictator, or the ruler of Rome for life
24 Caesar s Accomplishments Stabilized Rome Improved the calendar system (basis for ours today) Tried to reconcile opponents by appointing them to office Granted Roman citizenship to many of the conquered peoples Established a monarchy in Rome
25 The Assassination of Caesar While Julius Caesar was well liked by the plebeians of Rome, many of the patricians hated him As a result a group of 60 senators killed Julius Caesar by stabbing him to death as he entered a theater on the Ides of March (March 15 th ).
26 Caesar Augustus The senate did not regain control by assassinating Julius Caesar. Instead his adopted son Octavian took control Octavian sent an army to attack and kill the senators who killed Julius Caesar.
27 The Pax Romana Octavian was later re -named Caesar Augustus which means The Exalted One and became the first true Emperor of Rome Augustus laid the foundation for a stable government that would rule Rome for 200 years. This period was called the Pax Romana or Roman Peace
28 Spread of Christianity A new religion called Christianity began spreading through out the Roman Empire in the first few centuries C.E. Christianity was the belief that a Jewish man named Jesus was the son of God, and following his teachings The Christians, like the Jews were Monotheistic, meaning they believed there was only one God
29 Christians in the Roman World At first Christians were persecuted or treated badly in Rome Christians were forced to worship the gods of Rome or they could be imprisoned, enslaved, or killed. Those who were killed were called Martyrs meaning those who die for a cause. This often made other believers more faithful not less. Before long there were so many Christians that killing them all was unrealistic
30 Constantine The Roman Emperor Constantine was converted to Christianity on a battle field where he had a vision of a Christian symbol called the Chi Rho Because of this, Christianity eventually becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire.
31 Constantine Constantine also built a new capitol city in a place he called Constantinople
32 The Empire in Crisis With the end of the Pax Romana, political and economic turmoil rocked the Roman empire. Political Problems The Empire was too big to rule effectively from one location Emperors were repeatedly overthrown or assassinated. In one 50-year period, 26 emperors ruled, and only one died of natural causes. Economic & Social Problems High taxes to support the army burdened business, people, and farmers. Poor farmers were forced to live and work on land owned by the rich Over used farmland lost its productivity and prices soared.
33 Foreign Invasions Due to the divide in the Country east and west as well as political and economic turmoil, the weakened Roman Empire could not stop invasions from the Barbarian armies all around them
34 Fall of the Western Empire By 530 C.E. the Western Roman Empire had been completely conquered, leaving only the Eastern empire which would later be renamed the Byzantine Empire
35 The Fall of Rome The Byzantine Empire changed how the Army was organized and also changed the official language from Latin to Greek. This is often seen as the end of the Roman Empire since many of the traditions of Rome had come to an end However, many (including those in the Eastern Empire) view the Byzantine Empire as the continuation of the Roman Empire until it s collapse in 1453 C.E.
36 The Effect of Rome on Today Our Civilization is heavily influenced by the Roman Civilization We use the Roman (Latin) Alphabet Our calendar is based on the Julian Calendar The American Government uses many of the ideas pioneered by the Romans (Republic, Senate, etc.) Our military tactics have built upon the tactics first used by the Romans (small unit fighting organization) The architecture of much of our capitol, Washington D.C., is done to replicate the Greco-Roman style The organization of the Christian Churches was ensured by the Roman Emperors
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