Comparing Republics. Rome Powers America. Consuls EXECUTIVE President. *Senate *Centuriate Assembly *Tribal Assembly. *House of Representatives

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1 Warm-Up What island did Rome get after the first Punic War? Who led the Carthaginians in the second Punic War? What famous travel method did they utilize? Name the three legislative bodies in the Roman Republic? Name the Judicial branch in the Roman Republic?

2 Comparing Republics Rome Powers America Consuls EXECUTIVE President *Senate *Centuriate Assembly *Tribal Assembly LEGISLATIVE *Senate *House of Representatives Praetors JUDICIAL Supreme Court Twelve Tables LEGAL CODE Constitution

3 The Roman Forum center of Roman public life (12 Tables were hung here) Assembly members would meet outside here to discuss issues and possible laws Where the senate as well as republican government itself began. The Senate House, government offices, tribunals, temples, memorials and statues gradually cluttered the area One must be a great Orator, speaker, to get themselves heard

4 The Birth of the Roman Empire

5 The Republic Collapses Republic expanded, but it caused problems Major problems included; Widening gap between the rich and poor Wealthy lived on estates called latifundia, slaves worked these estates and were unhappy Soldiers came home with no jobs or land/homes Corruption was growing in the government

6 Attempts to Save Rome Two brothers try to solve Rome s problems Suggest that land should be split up Both Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus are killed Rome falls into civil war- rich v. poor Generals start creating armies themselves No longer care about Rome as a whole Power begins to change to the most powerful instead of the ones chosen

7 Julius Caesar Comes Julius Caesar comes to power with the help of two other people Crassus and Pompey Creates a triumvirate- rule by 3 people Caesar takes control of Gaul (France) He then turns his army on Rome to take power from Pompey- Pompey flees Rome Caesar gained the support of the Romans They name him dictator for life in 44 BCE

8 Julius Changes Increased citizenship to more Romans Created jobs for the poor Expanded Senate positions; filled w/ friends All these things make Caesar very popular Senators begin to worry about his popularity Feel they will be losing power/ influence Julius Caesar is killed March 15, 44 BCE Stabbed by friend Marcus Brutus and others

9 Life After the Death of Julius Caesar Civil war breaks out again after assassination Destroys what is left of the Roman republic Octavian is quick to come into power Was Julius grand-nephew and adopted son Comes to power with two others-2 nd Triumvirate Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus The 2 nd Triumvirate will end much like the first

10 Breakdown of the 2 nd Triumvirate They took power in 43 BC but quickly fell apart Lepidus forced to retire from service by Octavian Marc Antony and Octavian begin to fight Marc Antony goes to fight in Anatolia While there he meets Cleopatra- Queen of Egypt Falls in love with her and travels back to Egypt Octavian accuses him of trying to rule Rome from Egypt- some people do not like that idea The Battle of Actium (31BC) Octavian battles Antony and Cleopatra for control Octavian wins; Cleopatra and Anthony commit suicide

11 Octavian Controls the Empire Alone The Roman Empire was now Octavian s He promised to bring back parts of the republic He kept the Senate Later accepted the title of Augustus or exalted one Also took title of imperator or Emperor Octavian s rule starts the Roman Empire Different from the Roman Republic - only 1 ruler He takes power alone in 27 BC A new period of peace and prosperity begins Pax Romana means Roman peace Lasts from 27 BC 180 AD

12 Life During the Pax Romana Contained 200 wonderful years for Rome Had excellent leaders/ emperors Plenty of food, jobs and money Trade increased as well as the size of the empire Had million people in the empire City of Rome grew to over 1 million people Trading became a major part of the empire Traded by land to China, India and the Middle East Used the Silk Roads to reach into Russia as well Roads were built for army, but were also used for trade Traded by sea with the protection of the Roman navy

13 Protecting and Glorifying the Empire Defending such a large area was difficult Over 10,000 miles of border to protect Roman Legion had to depend on support armies Armies trained by the Romans Got to become citizens when their service was up Octavian glorified the empire by Building new buildings Using civil servants to collect taxes, mail, and grain Stabilizing the empire Creating a SILVER coin monetary system Called denarius, denaris (plural)

14 Emperors that followed Octavian 5 great emperors followed Octavian Gave them the great years of the Pax Romana There were also some crazy emperors such as Caligula and Nero - hated the Christians Emperors had a plan for when they died If they didn t a civil war could start again They picked an heir to the throne before they died Marcus Aurelius was the last great emperor He does not choose an heir before death This leads to the beginning of the fall of Rome

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