Chapter 8 Objectives. Explain how Rome became a republic. Describe how Rome gained control of the Mediterranean region.

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1 The Rise of Rome

2 Chapter 8 Objectives Explain how Rome became a republic Describe how Rome gained control of the Mediterranean region. Explain how the failure of the republic lead to the creation of the Roman Empire. Relate how military and political reforms made Rome rich and prosperous.

3 Test Preview - Vocabulary First Punic War Cicero Aqueduct Sicily Latifundia Puteoli First Triumvirate Plebeians praetors Etruscans

4 Test Preview Things to know Who founded the city of Rome? By when did Romans take over most of Italy? What important political reform occurred in 287 B.C. What were the Twelve Tables?

5 Test Preview Things to know What took place in the Second Punic War? When was Caesar killed? What was Octavian s title? What was Hadrian s Wall? What helped Rome become a trading power?

6 Test Preview Essays How did the geography affect where Rome was located? What reforms did Julius Caesar introduce to Rome? What effect did they have?

7 Section 1 Rome s Beginnings This section describes the beginnings of Rome, the founding of the republic, and early conquests.

8 Rome s Beginnings Italy is in an important location in the middle of the Mediterranean. It is located on a long, narrow peninsula with a distinctive shape; it looks like a high-heeled boot jutting into the sea. The island a the toe of Italy is Sicily. Across the northern border of Italy is the mountains region of the Alps. Another mountain ranch runs down the length of the boot called the Apennines.

9 Rome s Beginnings The landscape of Italy is similar to Greece. However, it is not as mountains and communities were able to communicate easily with each other. The land also had areas that were excellent for growing crops. The earliest people to inhabit Italy probably came across the northern mountains. These were a Latin-speaking people who built the city of Rome on the plain of Latium in central Italy. The site of Rome was about 15 mile up the Tiber River from the Mediterranean Sea. The Tiber River gave the early people of Rome a supply of fresh water. Rome was built on seven steep hills. This made it easier to defend Rome from attack.

10 Rome s Beginnings There are two different legends about the beginnings of Rome. The traditional story is that of twin brothers named Romulus and Remus. As babies they had been abandoned near the Tiber River. There they were rescued by a wolf and raised by a shepherd. In 753 B.C. they decided to build a city. They twins got in a fight and when Remus made fun of the wall he was building, Romulus lashed out and killed him. Romulus went on to become the first king of Rome and named the city after himself.

11 Rome s Beginnings The second story are traced back to the epic story Aeneid, that was written by a Roman poet named Virgil. The Aeneid is the story of the Trojan here Aeneas. After Troy had been captured by the Greeks, Aeneas led a group of Trojans to the mouth of the Tiber river. Through wars and then the marriage of Aeneas to a local leaders daughter, Aeneas united the Trojans and the Latins. The Latins were the local people. Historians are not really sure exactly how Rome began. The do know that there were tribes of Latins living in the hills in the area of Rome as early as 1000 B.C. These tribes probably banded together and created the community for protection. This later became the city of Rome.

12 Rome s Beginnings In about 800 B.C. other groups joined the Romans in Italy. The Greeks visited the area and taught the Romans how to grow olives and grapes. The Romans also adopted the Greek alphabet. The Etruscans were a group of people that lived north or Rome in Etruria. Around 650 B.C. they moved south and took over Rome. The Etruscans changed Rome from a straw-roofed city to one with wood and brick buildings. They also introduced streets, temples, and public buildings around as central city square. A new style of dress featuring short cloaks, togas, and sandals was also introduced. The Etruscan army were serve as the model for the powerful armies that the Romans would assemble.

13 Rome s Beginnings The Etruscans ruled Rome for more that 100 years. Under them, Rome became wealthy and powerful. In 509 B.C., the Romans rebelled against the ruling family called the Tarquins. They overthrow this ruling family and formed a republic. What is a republic? A form of government in which the leader is not a king or queen but someone put in office by citizens with the right to vote. Over the next 100 years the Romans would fight wars with their neighbors and become masters of almost all of Italy.

14 Rome s Beginnings The Romans were able to conquer Italy because of their excellent soldiers. In the early days of the republic every male citizen who owned land had to serve in the army. Discipline was hash and deserters were punished by death. Roman armies at first fought like the Greeks did. Later, Roman general organized their armies into smaller groups called legions. Each legion had about 6,000 men and was further divided into groups of 60 to 120 soldiers.

15 Rome s Beginnings Roman soldiers used a short sword called a gladius and a spear called a pilum. Each unit also carried a flag atop a long pole so that it was easy to identify on the battlefield. The Romans were also good planners. As they expanded throughout Italy, they built permanent settlements. They build roads between the towns that allowed their troops to quickly move from place to place. They also created a Roman Confederation. Under this system, Romans gave full citizenship to the people that they conquered. Under the confederation, everyone paid taxes to the republic but could run their own local affairs. This method of government encourage conquered people to be loyal to the Roman Republic.

16 Section 2 the Roman republic This section describes the Roman Republic s political development and the defeat of Carthage.

17 the Roman republic Early Romans were divided into two classes: Patricians Wealthy landowners who made up Rome s ruling class. Plebeians This group of citizens included artisans, shopkeepers, and owners of small farms. The men in both groups were Roman citizens and had the right to vote, the responsibility to pay taxes, and serve in the army. Plebeians had a lower social status and could not old public office. Marriage was not allowed between the two classes.

18 the Roman republic In the Roman Republic, the top government officials were the consuls. How many consuls were there? Two Chosen from the patrician class each year. They headed the army and ran the government. The two consuls had veto power over each other. What is veto power? The ability to reject the other s decision. The word veto is Latin for I forbid. Roman had other officials called praetors. These men did all the other important government jobs. Things like keeping tax records, supervising public festivals, and acting as judges.

19 the Roman republic Rome s lawmaking body was called the Senate. This was a select group of 300 patrician men who served for life. The Senate proposed laws, debated important issues, and approved government projects. The last part of the Roman government was the Assembly of Centuries. It elected important officials such as the consuls and praetors. They also passed the laws proposed by the Senate. Over time the plebeians began to complain about having no power in the Roman Republic. In 494 B.C. they went on strike and refused to server in the army and pay taxes. In 471 B.C. they were allowed to set up their own body of representatives called the Council of the Plebs. The Council of Plebs elected tribunes who took concerns to the government and had the right to veto government decisions. They also changed the laws so that plebeians and patricians could now marry. Eventually they made all laws for Rome.

20 the Roman republic The Roman Republic also had a position called a dictator. Roman dictators were men who were given complete control on a temporary basis during emergencies. The Senate would appoint the dictator. As soon as the danger had passed, the dictator would give up his power. The best-known early Roman dictator was Cincinnatus. In 460 B.C. Rome was attacked by a powerful enemy. The Senate promoted Cincinnatus to dictator. He lead the army and defeated the enemy. Only 15 days after becoming dictator, he gave up the power and returned to his farm. Cincinnatus s example of giving up power inspired George Washington to do the same thing at the end of the American Revolution.

21 the Roman republic The Roman system of laws is one of its greatest gifts to the world. The legal system of the United States is based largely upon the Roman system. Rome s first code of laws was called what? The Twelve Tables These were public laws that were carved on bronze tablets and keep in Rome s marketplace for everyone to see. The Twelve Tables only applied to Roman citizens. As they took over more lands they needed laws go govern those areas. They came up with the Law of Nations. The Law of Nations state principles of justice that applied to all people everywhere. Some of these principles we still use today. Things like innocent until proven guilty, defending yourself before a judge, and judges using evidence carefully before making a decision.

22 the Roman republic After Rome and completed its conquest of all of Italy, they found that they faced a powerful enemy across the Mediterranean Sea on the Northern coast of Africa. This was the empire of Carthage. Carthage had been founded in 800 B.C. by the Phoenicians. Carthage s empire extended all the way to present day Spain. They also controlled the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily off the coast of Italy. Both Rome and Carthage wanted control of the island of Sicily. In 264 B.C. they fought against each other in the First Punic War. Both empires built strong navies. They fought for more than 20 years. Finally Rome destroyed Carthage s navy off the coast of Sicily and force Carthage to leave the island.

23 the Roman republic To make up for the loss of Sicily, Carthage expanded into the area of southern Spain. The Romans helped the people of Spain in their fight against Carthage. To punish Rome, Carthage sent its greatest general, Hannibal to attack Rome. This was the start of the Second Punic War. Hannibal gathered a huge army in Spain. It contained 46,,000 men, many horses and 37 elephants. He marched east from Spain to attack. Before he reached Rome, Hannibal s army suffered heavy losses trying to cross the Alps across northern Italy. Although he lost almost half his soldiers and all of the elephants, he still had a powerful army. In 216 B.C., Hannibal defeated the Romans at the Battle of Cannae in southern Italy.

24 the Roman republic Despite their defeat, the Romans were about raise another army. Under a general named, Scipio, the Romans invaded Carthage. Hannibal was force to leave Italy in order to defend Carthage. At the Battle of Zama, Scipio s army defeated the Carthaginians. Carthage was forced to give up Spain to Rome. Rome now ruled all of the western Mediterranean. In 146 B.C. Rome fought Carthage one last time in the Third Punic War. This time they burned Carthage and took more than 50,000 men, women, and children as slaves. Legend has it that the Rome spread salt upon the ground were Carthage had stood so that nothing would ever grow there again. After defeating Carthage, Rome continued to conquer other lands. They conquered Macedonia and Greece. Soon they controlled every land around the Mediterranean and began calling it our sea.

25 Section 3 the Fall of the Republic This section describes the events that led to the end of the Roman Republic.

26 the Fall of the Republic Rome s army were victorious wherever they went. However, trouble was beginning back in Rome. Dishonest officials stole tax money and the gap between rich and poor was growing. Many poor farms were struggling to make a living. Many had fought in the Punic Wars and their farms had been destroyed during Hannibal s invasion of Italy. Wealthy Romans were buying up land to create large farming estates called latifundia. They used the large number of slaves taken in war as labor. This was forcing the small farmers out of business.

27 the Fall of the Republic Faced with debts they could not pay off, many sold their farms and went looking for work in the cities. There the also found very little work. This soon lead to widespread anger. To keep riots from breaking out, the politicians started providing the poor with cheap food and entertainment. Not all wealthy people ignored the problems of the republic. Two brothers worked for reforms. There names were Tierious and Gaius Gracchus. The brothers wanted the wealthy to break up their large estates and give back small farms to the people.

28 the Fall of the Republic A band of senators killed Tiberius in 133 B.C. and 12 years later killed his brother. These actions outraged the common people. Things got worse when the Roman army took over the government. A military leader named Marius became consul in 107 B.C. He began to recruit soldiers from the poor by offering them wages and land. The Roman arm went from being citizen volunteers to paid professional soldiers. This made the soldiers more loyal to their generals than to the Roman Republic. This lead to power struggles between generals. In 82 B.C. a general named Sulla drove Marius from power and made himself dictator of Rome. While in power, he weakened the Council of Plebs and strengthened the Senate.

29 the Fall of the Republic After Sulla left office different Roman leaders battled for power. Each supported by their loyal armies. In 60 B.C. three men rose to the top: Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar. All three were successful military leaders. Together the formed the First Triumvirate to rule Rome. What is a Triumvirate? A triumvirate is a political alliance of three people. Each had a military command in a remote area of the republic. Pompey was in Spain, Crassus in Syria, and Caesar in Gaul (modern day France).

30 the Fall of the Republic Caesar became popular with Romans because he battled foreign tribes and invaded Britain. After Crassus was killed in Battle, the Senate decided that Pompey should return to Italy to rule alone. The Senate also ordered Caesar to give up his army and return home. Caesar did not want to give up power and instead marched on Rome with his army. In doing so he had to cross a small river at the southern boundary of his command area called the Rubicon. In doing so he started a civil war. Pompey tried to stop Caesar, but Caesar was able to defeat him and become dictator of Rome. Rather than step down after a short time, Caesar instead filled the Senate with new members who were loyal to him.

31 the Fall of the Republic Caesar also knew that some governmental reforms were needed. While in power he: Granted citizenship to people living in Rome s territories outside Italy Started new colonies to provide land for the landless Created work for Rome s jobless people Ordered landowners using slave labor to hire more free workers.

32 the Fall of the Republic Caesar also created a new calendar with 12 months, 365 days, and a leap year. This Julian calendar was used throughout Europe until Then it was modified slightly and became the Gregorian calendar that we still used today. While many Romans support Caesar, others did not. Among his opponents were two senators Brutus and Cassius. On March 15, 44 B.C. the surrounded him in the Senate chambers and stabbed him to death. Caesar s death plunged Rome into another civil war. One side had the men that killed Caesar and on the other side was Caesar s grandnephew Octavian and his top two generals, Antony and Lepidus. After defeating Caesar s killers they formed the Second Triumvirate in 43 B.C.

33 the Fall of the Republic The members of the Second Triumvirate began disagreeing almost as soon as they gained power. Lepidus was forced into retirement and Octavian and Antony divided the Roman world between them. Octavian took the west and Antony took the east. Antony fell in love with and formed an alliance with the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra VII. In 31 B.C. Octavian and Antony fought at the Battle of Actium. Octavian crushed the army and navy Antony & Cleopatra. He later hunted them down and they killed themselves rather than be captured. Octavian was now the sole ruler of Rome and lay the foundation for a new system of government The Roman Empire.

34 the Fall of the Republic Octavian could have made himself dictator for life as Caesar had done. But he wanted to restore a republican form of government. Octavian was advised by Cicero, a political leader, writer, and Rome s greatest public speaker. Cicero s ideas on republican forms of government would be used later in history by the writers of the United States Constitution. Octavian restored the Senate but made sure he would remain in control. He gave himself the title of imperator, which translated to commander in chief. It later come to mean emperor. He also took the title of Augustus which means the revered or majestic one. From this point on Octavian was know as Augustus.

35 Section 4 The Early empire This section describes the expansion and contributions of the Roman Republic.

36 The Early empire Under the rule of Augustus and his successors the Roman Empire reached its peak. The region of the Mediterranean enjoyed several years of peace that lasted until A.D This era was called Pax Romana or Roman Peace. The entire area was under the control of the Roman Empire.

37 The Early empire Augustus did several things to improve the Roman Empire. He built a permanent professional army of 150,000 men. He created a special unit to guard the emperor called the Praetorian Guard. He conquered all of Spain, Gaul, and the Balkans. He filled Rome with stately palaces, fountains, and splendid buildings. He created a government system using governors to rule each of Rome s provinces. He reformed the tax system by making tax collectors work for the government. He changed the legal system so that the people living in the provinces would be treated fairly and could become citizens.

38 The Early empire After ruling for almost 40 years, Augustus died in A.D. 14. There was no law that determine who was to be the next emperor. However, Augustus had trained a relative, Tiberius to follow him. The next three emperors, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero also came from Augustus s family. Tiberius and Claudius were good rules. Caligula and Nero turned out to be cruel leaders.

39 The Early empire Mental illness caused Caligula to act strangely and to treat people cruelly. He had many people murdered, wasted a lot of money, and even gave his favorite horse the position of consul. Eventually the Praetorian Guard killed him and put Claudius on the throne. Nero was also a vicious and mentally ill man. Among those he had killed were his mother and two wives. It is thought he was responsible for much of Rome burning. He later committed suicide. After Nero committed suicide, Rome passed through a period of disorder until a general under Nero took the throne. His name was Vespasian. Vespasian put down several rebellions in the empire, including a Jewish rebellion in Palestine. During this rebellion the Jewish temple in Jerusalem was destroyed in A.D. 70.

40 The Early empire During his reign, Vespasian began construction of the Colosseum in central Rome. His son Titus, then his other son Domitian, ruled Rome after he died. Both sons oversaw an era of growth and prosperity in Rome. It was during Titus s reign that Mount Vesuvius erupted and destroyed the city of Pompeii. In the A.D. 100 s as series of rulers who were not related to Augustus or Vespasian came to power. These five emperors Nerva, Trajan, Hadriand, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius are known as the good emperors. Under these rulers Rome s prosperity increased. These emperors created programs to help the common people. The gave money for helping the poor, education, constructing public buildings, and built aqueducts to bring water to the cities.

41 The Early empire Under these rulers the empire continued to grow and reached its largest size under Trajan. It spread from Britain in the north, to part of Mesopotamia in the east. When Hadrian came to power, he realized that the empire had become too large to govern. He began to pull troops back from some areas. He set the northern boundary at the Rhine and Danube Rivers and also built a wall across northern Britain to keep out the Picts and Scots. During this time everyone living under the Roman Empire became Roman citizens. The economy of Roman flourished. People were well fed and traders from all over the empire and beyond came to ports in Italy. These included silk from China and spices from India.

42 The Early empire During the Pax Romana era, more roads were built to help with trade. Rome s system of roads reached a total length of 50,000 miles. On the sea, the Roman navy helped rid the Mediterranean of pirates. Roman trade was helped by the use of a common system of currency. Roman coins were accepted throughout the Mediterranean region. The Romans also created a system of weights and measures the made it easier for people to trade with each other. While shopkeepers, merchants, and skilled workers benefitted and grew rich from the empire s trade, others remained poor and enslaved.

43 The Rise of Rome Review for Test

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