1. STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES SURROUNDING ANCIENT ROME

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1 SOUTHWESTERN CHRISTIAN SCHOOL WORLD HISTORY STUDY GUIDE # 12 : ANCIENT ROME LEARNING OBJECTIVES STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES SURROUNDING ANCIENT ROME STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ITALIAN PENINSULA S GEOGRAPHY STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE TIME OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND WHAT IMPACT THEY HAD ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION 4. STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE PHILOSPHY DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND EXPLAIN WHAT IMPACT THEY HAD ON WESTERN CIVILIZATION 5. STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE MAJOR ANCIENT ROMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELDS OF SCIENCE, ARTS, ARCHITECTURE, AND LITERATURE - STUDENTS WILL ALSO AND BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE IMPACT THAT THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS HAD ON WESTERN CIVILIZATION 6. STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN HOW THE ROMAN REPUBLIC WORKED AS A REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY AND THE IMPACT IT HAD ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION 7. STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE CAUSES FOR THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE EFFECTS THAT HAD ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION 8. STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANCIENT ROME S CULTURE AND OTHER ANCIENT CULTURES GEOGRAPHIC ADVANTAGES : 1

2 CULTURE > RELIGION : SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > ROMAN MYTHOLOGY WAS ROMAN RELIGIOUS MYTHOLOGY BASED ON A HOLY BOOK? ROMANS LEARNED ABOUT THEIR RELIGION THROUGH STORIES CALLED NEARLY ALL OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ROMAN CAME FROM THE ANCIENT 4. ROMANS GAVE THE GODS AND GODDESSES NEW 5. THE ROMAN GOD OF THE SEA WAS CALLED 4. THE ROMAN GOD WAS THE OF THE GODS AND ALSO THE GOD OF AND 5. THE ROMAN KING OF ALL THE GODS WAS 6. THE CITIZENS ALSO WORSHIPED THE AS GODS AND BUILT IN THEIR HONOR 7. THE MAIN WAY THE ROAMS WORSHIPED WAS BY SACRIFICING A VALUABLE SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY AFTER CHRIST MANY EARLY CHRISTIANS WERE FORCED INTO AND SUFFERED 2

3 AT THE HANDS OF THE ROMAN AUTHORITIES WAS THE DEATH RESERVED FOR POLITICAL AGITATORS AND LOWER CLASSES OF NON ROMAN CRIMINALS IN THE FOURTH CENTURY AD THE FIRST PROFESSED CHRISTIAN EMPEROR DECLARED THAT CHRISTIANITY WAS THE RELIGION OF THE EMPIRE AND ROME BECAME THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH CULTURE > PHILOSOPHY : THEOLOGY - APOSTLES - NEW TESTAMENT / GOSPELS - SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > APOSTLE PAUL WHO WAS SAUL DEDICATED TO PERSECUTING AND WIPING OUT? A VISION OF CHANGED SAUL S LIFE OVER THE NEXT 40 YEARS PAUL TRAVELED OVER 10,00 MILES TO PREACH TO THE 4. THE BIBLE DOES NOT SAY HOW PAUL 5. PAUL TRANSFORMED A SMALL GROUP OF BELIEVERS INTO A WORLD THAT CONQUERED THE SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > APOSTLE AUGUSTINE HE CAME FROM A REMOTE TOWN AND BY THE AGE OF 30 HAD BECOME ONE OF THE MOST PEOPLE 3

4 IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE AS A SPOKESPERSON FOR THE EMPEROR AT THE AGE OF 32 HE BECAME A AND RETURNED HOME AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH MADE HIM A AUGUSTINE WROTE BOOKS ON,,, AND 4. AUGUSTINE WROTE WHAT IS CALLED A RULE OF AS A GUIDE FOR CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES 5. IN 1244 AD A NUMBER OF SMALL COMMUNITIES JOINED TOGETHER AND ADOPTED AUGUSTINE S PHILOSOPHY. THESE COMMUNITIES WERE CALLED THE OF SAINT AUGUSTINE 6. PEOPLE OF THESE COMMUNITIES ARE KNOWN AS AND HAVE ESTABLISHED MANY UNIVERSITIES AND SCHOOLS AROUND THE WORLD 7. TODAY AUGUSTINIAN BASED EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS VALUE THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE AND HOLDING EACH OTHER TO THE HIGHEST AND STANDARDS, VALUING DILIGENT, FREEDOM OF, AND A DEDICATION TO AND A COLLEGIAL FOR EACH PERSON CULTURE > LITERATURE VERNACULAR - VIRGIL - AENEID - HORACE - SATIRE - 4

5 CULTURE > ARCHITECTURE - THIS IS WHERE THE ROMANS SHINED WITH GREAT CONTRIBUTIONS AS THEY WERE GREAT ENGINEERS!! AQUEDUCTS - SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > AQUEDUCTS AT THE TIME OF JULIUS CAESAR S ASSASSINATION ROME CONTROLLED MOST OF AND NORTH MAKING IT THE MEDITERRANEAN S LONE UNDER AUGUSTUS THE ROMAN NETWORK WAS EXPANDED TO REACH THE FARTHEST POINTS OF THE EMPIRE UNDER AUGUSTUS MANY NEW ROMAN STYLE WERE CREATED THROUGHOUT EUROPE 4. ROME S ENGINEERS HAD WHAT SECRET WEAPON THAT ALLOWED THEM TO BUILD BIGGER AND FASTER THAN ANYONE ELSE? 5. OF ALL THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF ROME S ENGINEERS, NONE WERE AS LIFE ALTERING AS 6. ROME S AQUEDUCT LINES BROUGHT OVER MILLION GALLONS OF WATER A DAY TO THE CITY 7. THE WATER BROUGHT TO ROME BY THE AQUEDUCTS ALLOWED OVER MILLION PEOPLE TO LIVE CLEANLY AND COMFORTABLY 8. ACCOMPLISHMENTS DURING THE REIGN OF EMPEROR CLAUDIUS : ROME CONQUERED HE BUILT TWO MAJOR 9. AQUEDUCTS ARE NOT COMPLICATED AND WORK ON THE PRINCIPLE THAT WATER SEEKS ITS LEVEL 5

6 10. THE ROMANS BUILT THEIR AQUEDUCTS ON A GRADUAL DECLINING OR GRADIENT THAT WAS JUST SEVERAL PER 100 FEET 1 THE OF THE AQUEDUCT HAD TO BE CALCULATED FROM GREAT 1 TO MAINTAIN THE OF THE AQUEDUCT THE ROMANS HAD TO CHANNEL THE WATER THROUGH IN THE MOUNTAINS AND ACROSS FOR LOW VALLEYS 1 FOR THE AQUEDUCT STRUCTURES BUILT IN THE LOW VALLEYS, IF THEY HAD TO BE OVER 6 AND ½ FEET, THE ROMANS CONSERVED BUILDING MATERIALS AND ADDED STRENGTH BY PERFECTING THE ANCIENT ENGINEERING CONCEPT OF THE 14. AFTER REACHING THE CITY, THE AQUEDUCTS EMPTIED INTO THREE HOLDING TANKS THE WERE FOR : PUBLIC FOUNTAINS PUBLIC THE AND WEALTHY ROMANS WHO FOR THE WATER SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > COLOSSEUM THE MOST IMPORTANT ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION THAT HELPED FORM ROME S GREAT MONUMENTS WAS THE THE WEIGHT OF THE BUILDING STRUCTURE SUPPORTED BY AN IS ABSORBED AND DISTRIBUTED DOWN THE PILLARS OF THE BUILDING BY THE 6

7 THE COLOSSEUM HAS A TOTAL OF 4. FOR ROME S ENGINEERS, BUILDING THE COLOSSEUM WAS A BUSINESS OF 5. THE ENGINEERS USED BOTH AND LABOR FORUM - 4. SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > ROMAN TECHNOLOGY LANDS THAT WERE ONCE ROMAN ARE NOW PART OF COUNTRIES ROME BUILT A NETWORK OF THOUSAND MILES OF PAVED ROADS TO CONNECT THE EMPIRE ROMAN ROADS MADE IT EASY TO TRAVEL GREAT DISTANCES 4. WHERE EVER 3 ROADS CROSSED WAS OFTEN POSTED FOR TRAVELERS AND THE LATIN WORD FOR SUCH A CROSS ROAD WAS TRAVIA = A 3 ROAD 5. ROADS CARRIED ROMAN THROUGHOUT THE EMPIRE 6. ROMAN CIVILIZATION ENJOYED A TECHNOLOGY BOOM THAT INCLUDED THE INVENTIONS OF : TWO CYLINDER USED FOR FIRE FIGHTING SOPHISTICATED A ROTARY FLOUR 4. WATER POWERED 5. AND FOR SECURITY 7. THE GREATEST LUXURY ENJOYED BY ROMANS WAS THE DELIVERED BY THE SYSTEM OF 7

8 5. PANTHEON - SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > PANTHEON THE PANTHEON WAS BUILT BY EMPEROR HADRIAN AS A FOR ALL THE ROTUNDA - MEANS THE ROUND OPENING AT THE TOP OF THE PANTHEON S ROTUNDA IS CALLED THE OCULUS - AND IS NICKNAMED EYE OF HEAVEN 4. THE ROMAN GODS : MAIN GODS : AND GOD OF WAR GODDESS OF LOVE 4. GODDESS OF WISDOM 5. GOD OF THE SEA 6. THE MESSENGER CULTURE > MEDICINE : GALEN - CULTURE > SOCIAL STRUCTURE : PATRICIANS - 8

9 PLEBEIANS GOVERNMENTS > ETRUSCANS BC - STARTED THE EMPIRE 4. SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > ETRUSCANS ** VIDEO RUNS FOR 1 : 20 BEFORE NOTES START WHAT FIRST SET ROME APART FROM OTHER MEDITERRANEAN CITIES WAS ITS ABILITY TO ITSELF THE MAN WHO RESHAPED ROMAN SOCIETY WAS AN KING NAMED SERVIUS TULLIUS WHAT SERVIUS TULLIUS DID WAS CARRY OUT THE FIRST 4. THE WAS A WAY OF GRADING ROMAN CITIZENS BY THEIR STATUS AND PRESTIGE 5. IN THE SIXTH CENTURY BC THE DETAILED EVERY ROMAN S TO THE CITY. AND MORE IMPORTANTLY IT GAVE THEM 6. IN PROPORTION TO THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS, THE CITIZEN WAS GIVEN A IN HOW THE CITY WAS RUN 7. SERVIUS HAD SOWED THE SEEDS OF GOVERNMENT AND ORGANIZED AN ASSEMBLY WHICH HE CALLED THE 9

10 8. THE CENSUS ALSO DECREED THAT EACH OF THE CITY S SOCIAL CLASSES SHOULD CONTRIBUTE A GROUP OF FOR ROME S DEFENSE THAT WERE CALLED THE GOVERNMENTS > THE FIRST REPUBLIC BC REPUBLIC - SENATE - 4. ASSEMBLY OF CENTURIES - 4. ASSEMBLY OF TRIBES - 5. IMPERIUM - 6. CONSUL - 7. DICTATOR - 8. VETO - 9. PRAETORS CENSORS - SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > THE ROMAN REPUBLIC AFTER THE ETRUSCAN S THE ROMANS VOWED THEY WOULD NEVER LIVE UNDER A THEY DECLARED THAT THE AFFAIRS OF ROME WOULD BELONG TO THE AND THAT CITIZENS WOULD 10

11 AS A REPUBLIC ROME WOULD BE RULED BY AND ELECTED OFFICIALS 4. ROME S EMBLEM SPQR STOOD FOR THE, AND OF GOVERNMENTS > THE SECOND REPUBLIC BC - THE PLEBEIAN REVOLUTION - THEY ACTUALLY GO ON STRIKE BY NOT PAYING TAXES OR SERVING IN THE MILITARY : TRIBUNES - TWELVE TABLES GOVERNMENTS > THE PUNIC WARS BC CARTHAGE - HANNIBAL - SHORT SUBJECT VIDEOS > FIRST PUNIC WAR, HANNIBAL, AND THE SECOND PUNIC WAR THE CARTHAGINIANS WERE A GREAT POWER ROMAN NAVY USED THE TACTIC OF ENEMY SHIPS SO THEY COULD ENGAGE IN TO COMBAT IT TOOK YEARS OF FIGHTING FOR THE TO WIN THE FIRST PUNIC WAR 11

12 4. TWO DECADES AFTER THE FIRST PUNIC WAR HANNIBAL WAS IN CHARGE OF CARTHAGE S 5. HANNIBAL WAS INTENT ON INVADING ROME BUT WOULD HAVE TO DO IT BY, CROSSING THE 6. THE COST TO HANNIBAL WAS GREAT AS HE LOST / OF HIS SOLDIERS 7. THE DECIDING FACTOR IN THE SECOND PUNIC WAR WOULD NOT BE MANPOWER, BUT GOVERNMENTS > THE CIVIL WAR PERIOD BC 4. GLADIATORS - SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > GLADIATOR **** NO NOTES GOVERNMENTS > THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE - 60 BC JULIUS CAESAR - GAULIC WARS - CRASSUS - 12

13 POMPEY - SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > JULIUS CAESAR AS A CHILD JULIUS CAESAR BOLDLY CLAIMED HE HAD DESCENDED FROM THE GODDESS ROMAN POLITICIANS WOULD HOLD SPECTACLES TO IMPRESS THE PUBLIC. AT THE FIRST SPECTACLE / PUBLIC GAMES THAT JULIUS CAESAR HELD, GLADIATORS FOUGHT TO THE DEATH JULIUS CAESAR KNEW THERE WERE TWO KEYS TO POWER IN ROME : ONE WAS PLAYING TO THE THE OTHER WAS COMMANDING A SUCCESSFUL 4. IN 59 BC JULIUS CAESAR BECAME MILITARY COMMANDER OF THE ARMY IN WHICH IS IN MODERN DAY AND OVER NINE YEARS KILLED OR ENSLAVED MILLION PEOPLE 5. WHEN JULIUS CAESAR RETURNED TO ROME HE WANTED, ATTACKED ROME, AND STARTED A 6. IN 48 BC JULIUS CAESAR FELL IN LOVE WITH PRINCESS OF EGYPT 7. UPON RETURNING TO ROME IN 46 BC CAESAR WAS VOTED ABSOLUTE POWER AS A 13

14 8. JULIUS CAESAR SHOCKED EVERYONE BY USING HIS POWER NOT FOR REVENGE, BUT FOR : HE MADE SURE THAT NO ROMAN CITIZEN EVERY WENT HE GAVE TO HIS SOLDIERS THAT HE PAID FOR 9. IN 44 BC JULIUS CAESAR ASKED TO BE MAKE DICTATOR FOR 10. JULIUS CAESAR WAS ASSASSINATED BY THE ROMAN 1 THE PEOPLE WERE OUTRAGED AND DECLARED JULIUS CAESAR A 1 THE PEOPLE HAD MADE IT CLEAR THAT THEY VALUED THE GIFTS OF A DICTATOR MORE THAN THE OF THE REPUBLIC GOVERNMENTS > DUAL DICTATORS BC SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > DUAL DICTATORS **** NO NOTES GOVERNMENTS > THE FIRST EMPEROR - 30 BC AUGUSTUS - PRINCEPS - PAX ROMANA - 4. PRAETORIAN GUARD - 14

15 SHORT SUBJECT > AUGUSTUS CAESAR IN 31 BC OCTAVIAN TAKES CONTROL AND HE UNDERSTANDS THAT IS THE SECRET TO CONTROLLING ROMAN SOCIETY : OCTAVIAN GAVE THE ARMY HUGE OCTAVIAN INCREASED THE HANDOUTS TO THE POOR AND BUILT NEW OCTAVIAN THEN FOCUSED ON THE MOST IMPORTANT RITUAL OF ALL AND STAGED THE MOST LAVISH ROME HAD EVER SEEN IN 27 BC THE SENATE GAVE OCTAVIAN THE FOR CAESAR AUGUSTUS WAS ROME S FIRST AND UNDER HIM THE PAX ROMANA IS ROME S AND WAS THE LONGEST PERIOD OF PEACE THAT EUROPE WOULD EVER KNOW 4. THE PROBLEM OF DYNASTIC WOULD HAUNT AUGUSTUS FOR THE REST OF HIS LIFE GOVERNMENTS > THE DECLINE OF ROME TO 400 AD DESPOTS - SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > THE DECLINE OF ROME AND INSANE, DESPOTIC, EMPERORS CALIGULA, THE THIRD ROMAN EMPEROR WAS INSANE. HE RECOMMENDED THAT HIS BE ELECTED CONSUL PEOPLE BLAMED NERO FOR THE MASSIVE FIRE THAT DESTROYED 15

16 MUCH OF ROME AND HE COUNTERACTED THE ACCUSATIONS BY TRYING TO SET UP THE AS THE SCAPEGOATS NERO S PERSECUTION OF THE FAILS AND HE FLEES THE COUNTRY. THE SENATE THEN DECLARED HIM A PUBLIC ENEMY AND SENTENCED HIM TO 4. HOW DID NERO DIE? VISIGOTHS - 4. SHORT SUBJECT VIDEO > THE GOTHS ALONG WITH THE INTERNAL DECLINE THE WESTERN EMPIRE FACED THREATS FROM THE WARS AND CLIMATE CHANGES CAUSED THE TO MIGRATE WESTWARD OVERRUN BY THE GOTHS, VISIGOTHS, AND THE VANDALS, THE ROMANS FIRST LOST, THEN, AND THEN 4. IN 410 AD THE VISIGOTH GENERAL ALIRICH MADE IT ALL THE WAY TO 5. THE EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE WOULD BECOME THE EMPIRE AND WOULD CONTINUE FOR ANOTHER YEARS GOVERNMENTS > SUMMARY > FIVE REASONS FOR THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE : MERCENARIES - 16

17 4. 5. CHAPTER READINGS PREPARATION FOR CHRIST - PAGES 79 THRU 80 WHY COULD GOOD NEWS TRAVEL SO QUICKLY IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE? WHAT MADE IT EASIER FOR PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT LANDS TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER? WHAT IS A SYNAGOGUE? 4. WHAT IS A SEPTUAGINT? 5. THE NAME CHRIST IS OF WHAT LANGUAGE ORIGIN? 6. WHY DO WE USE THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR? 7. WHAT YEAR WAS JESUS ACTUALLY BORN? ROME AND CHRISTIANITY : RECONCILIATION AND DISTORTION - PAGES 88 THRU 89 WHAT TURNED EMPEROR CONSTANTINE TO CHRISTIANITY? WHAT QUESTION HAS ARISEN ABOUT CONSTANTINE S BELIEFS? HOW DID CONSTANTINE DISTORT CHRISTIANITY? 17

18 18

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