Section 1: The Early Hebrews

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1 Section 1: The Early Hebrews 1. Summarize the Beginnings in Canaan and Egypt: 2. Who led the Hebrews out of Mesopotamia? 3. After they lived in Canaan, where did they live? 4. Why was the pharaoh worried about the Hebrews? 5. Who led the Hebrews out of Egypt? 6. What is this called? 7. What happened when the pharaoh refused to let the Hebrews go? 8. What did Moses find on Mt. Sinai? 9. How long did the Hebrews wander in the desert? 10. What did the Hebrews become known as after they settled in Canaan? 11. How or where did the Israelites live? 12. Who began to threaten the Israelites?

2 13. Why did the Israelites band together? And who was their leader? 14. Describe their first king? 15. How was their next king different, and what was his name? 16. What city was captured under his rule? 17. Who was the next king? 18. Who did he make his allies? 19. What did Solomon do with the wealth that was gained from trade? 20. What happened after Solomon s death? 21. What were the names of the two kingdoms? 22. What happened to these kingdoms in 722 BC?

3 23. Who destroyed Solomon s temple and when? 24. Explain the Babylon Captivity. 25. What does the term Diaspora mean? 26. Who conquered the Jews next? 27. Who were the Maccabees and what did they do? 28. Who captured the Jews in 63 BC? 29. Describe their time under Roman law? 30. Describe how women were treated in Hebrew Society.

4 Map: Timeline: 2000 BC 1000 BC 930 BC Moses leads the Hebrews on the Exodus out of slavery in Egypt Saul becomes first king of Israel Solomon becomes king and builds a temple

5 Section 2 Jewish Beliefs and Texts 1. Define monotheism - 2. How were Jewish people different from other ancient people? 3. The Jewish people had three core beliefs (in your book they are red); list them and write a brief summary of each: Belief in - Belief in - Belief in - 5. What is contained in the Torah? 6. How do readers show respect to the Torah?

6 7. Where do the Jewish people worship? 8. What makes up the second part of the Hebrew Bible? 9. What makes up the third part of the Hebrew Bible? 10. What is the Talmud? 11. What are the Dead Sea Scrolls and explain why they are important? 12. Summarize the section on Judaism and Later Cultures:

7 Section 3 Judaism over the Centuries 1. Who were the zealots? 2. Why did they refuse to obey the Roman officials? 3. When did they revolt, how long did it last, and what was the result? 4. What was the Masada and what happened there? 5. What were the results of the revolt? 6. When was the second revolt, and what happened because of it? 7. What were the results to the Jewish religion and traditions because of the migration and discrimination? 8. What are the two different cultural traditions that developed and provide a brief description of them? 9. Write a brief overview of Hanukkah, Passover and Yum Kippur:

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9 Section One: Geography and the Rise of Rome 1. Describe the geography of Italy. 2. Why did people build cities on Italy s hills? 3. What other geographic feature did people build cities near? 4. Describe the climate. 5. Summarize the legend of Aeneas. 6. Summarize the legend of Romulus and Remus. 7. When did Romulus take the throne? 8. Who were the Etruscans? 9. List some of their accomplishments. 10. When did Rome become a republic? 11. What is a Republic? 12. Why is Rome NOT a democracy? 13. What is a dictator? 14. How did Rome keep the dictators from abusing power?

10 15. Who is Cincinatus and what is his claim to fame? 16. What is a plebeian? 17. Who are the patricians? 18. What happened in 494 BC? Map of Italy BC identify where the Romans, Etruscans, Greeks, Carthaginians lived:

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12 Government and Society Section Two 1. What did the government do to calm the angry plebeians? 2. What was the result of this change? (they formed a new type of government) 3. List the three parts of the government: 4. How long did a consul serve? 5. How long did a senator serve? 6. How many senators were there? 7. Which branch protected the common people? 8. What does veto mean? 9. Why did people participate in their government? 10. Was everyone allowed to vote? 11. Explain checks and balances in your own words. 12. When were Rome s laws first written down, where were they displayed? 13. In your own words describe the Forum, be sure to include at least two buildings.

13 The Late Republic Section 3 1. How long did it take for the Roman army to to conquer nearly all of Italy? 2. Why did Roman territory grow? 3. What is one reason for the Roman s army success? 4. Explain what happened to farms and trade after the Roman s army success? 5. When were the Punic Wars? 6. Who fought in the Punic Wars? 7. Who was the leader of Carthage army in 218 BC? 8. What did the Romans do to Carthage in 140 BC? 9. During the Punic Wars, Rome also took control of: 10. What was surprising about the Romans victory over Greece? 11. What did many leaders fear would happened between the rich and poor? 12. What was Tiberius solution to help the poor in 133 BC? 13. What happened instead?

14 14 What did his brother do and what was his fate? 15. Who was allowed to join the army under consul, Marius, and why? 16. Why was the army more loyal to Marius instead of to Rome? 17. What is a civil war? 18. Who led thousands of slave to demand freedom? 19. What happened?

15 From Republic to Empire Section One 1. Describe Rome in the 70 s BC? 2. Who was Cicero? 3. What did he want Romans to do, and who did he want to have limited power? 4. Why was he unsuccessful? 5. Who was (most likely) the greatest general in Roman history? 6.Why did his soldiers respect him? 7. When did he conquer almost of all Gaul? 8. What attributes made Caesar a success in Roman politics? 9. With whom did he make an agreement before he went to Gaul? What did they agree to do? 10. What changed his relationship with his allies? 11. What was Caesar ordered to do in 50 BC? 12.What did Caesar do? 13. What happened to Pompey? 14. Who did Caesar marry?

16 15. What did he do when he returned to Rome? 16. Why were people afraid of Caesar? 17. What date is the Ides of March and what happened on that fateful day? 18. What happened to Caesar s attackers? 19. Who were the two leaders who emerged after Caesar s death? 20. What did they set out to do? 21. Where did Octavian go? 22. Where did Antony go and with whom did he fall in love? 23. Why did this enrage Octavian? 24. What happened next? 25. What name did Octavian take for himself, and why do historians consider this to be so significant?

17 A Vast Empire Section Two 1. What were the key reasons for the Roman Empire s expansion? 2. What marks the territory between the Roman and non-romans? 3. Why did merchants travel all other the Roman empire? 4. List some of good that traders brought into Rome. 5. What did the Romans use to pay for their goods? 6. What was the impact of using currency? 7. What is the Pax Romana and when was it? 8. What happened during the Pax Romana? 9. Describe life in the city of Rome. 10. Describe country life. Map of the Roman Empire:

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19 Rome s Legacy Section 3 1. Why did Roman scientists study the stars? 2. Who was Galen, and how did he contribute to Roman society? 3. How did the Romans make their durable roads? 4. What is an aqueduct? 5. What is a vault? 6. What was Roman architect based on? 7. What type of art are the Romans known for? 8.Who wrote the Aeneid? 9. Who wrote poems about Roman mythology? 10. What was the language of the Romans and what type of languages came from it? 11. What type of law is based on the Roman law code? 12. Why is that significant?

20 Religion in the Roman Empire Section 1 1. Why did the Romans allow the people they conquered to keep their religious beliefs, what did this do to the Empire over time? 2. When would the Romans ban a religion? 3. Discuss the two reasons that the Roman leaders banned Judaism. (actually explain it - do not list religious and political) 4. In what religion do the roots of Christianity lie? 5. What did many Jews believe would happen, if they followed the strict religious laws? 6. Who was the Messiah a descendent of? 7. Who was the most famous prophet of these time?

21 Origins of Christianity Section 2 1. What are the two parts of the Christian Bible and what is contained in them? 2. Who is Jesus father? 3. When was Jesus arrested and why? 4. What is crucifixion? 5. What is the resurrection? 6. How long did Jesus stay with his disciples? 7. What did early Christians think about the Resurrection? 8. What does the word Christos mean? 9. List Jesus miracles. 10. What is a parable? 11. Why were Jesus parables so effective?

22 12. What two rules that were established in the Torah did Jesus emphasize? 13. Who did Jesus expect his followers to love? 14. What is salvation? 15. What did Jesus teach about salvation? 16. What is a denomination? 17. How many Apostles were there? 18. Who became the leader after Jesus died? 19. Which group of people did he reach out to? 20. What are the gospels? 21. Who was Paul and what did do? 22. What his background? 23. Retell his conversion story. 24. What is the trinity?

23 Map of Paul s Journey:

24 The Early Christian World Section 3 1. Why did Christianity spread so quickly? 2. Who did the first Christians work to spread Jesus teachings to first? 3. What is a martyr? 4. Why was Christianity banned? 5. What was a bishops role? 6. What was one of his most important duties? 7. What do some churches call the Eucharist? 8. Who was the most honored of all bishops? and what is he called? 9. Who Augustine? 10. Whose ideas did he apply he apply to Christian beliefs? 11. Explain how the emperor Constantine became a Christian? 12. What did he do after his conversion?

25 13. Who banned all non-christian religious practices and when?

26 Fall of the Western Roman Empire Section 1 1. Why did emperors give up some of the land of the Roman Empire in the early 100 s? 2. Who started to invade the Roman s northern borders? 3. What were the struggles inside the empire? 4. What did these struggles make the Roman people do? 5. What did Diocletian do to the empire and why? 6. What did Constantine do shorty after (2 different things)? 7. What happened in the late 300 s? 8. Who were these invaders? 9. Who did the Huns invade who asked for help from the Romans? 10. What did the Romans do? 11. What was the result? 12. When was the city of Rome destroyed?

27 13. Who invaded Rome next and when? 14. Which groups invaded Britain and Gaul? 15. Who was the Frankish king who had built a huge kingdom in Gaul? 16. Who led the attacks in raids against Constantinople, Greece, Gaul, and Northern Italy? Why did he not go into southern Italy? 17. Who ruled Rome in the 450 s? 18. Why was this unfortunate? 19. What is the date of the END OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE? 20. Summarize the many factors that led to fall of Rome. Congratulations!! You have studied history from the earliest civilization that started between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to the Fall of Rome. You have learned and studied civilizations on 5 continents. Stay curious about your world and learn all that you can about the past.

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