HCP WORLD HISTORY PROJECT THE ROMAN CONQUEST

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1 Coosa High School Rome, Georgia Instructor: Randy Vice Created by: Kierra Smith, Kayla Breeden, and Myra Hernandez HCP WORLD HISTORY PROJECT THE ROMAN CONQUEST SECTION ONE: POWERPOINT SECTION TWO: WRITTEN REPORT

2 SECTION ONE POWERPOINT PRESENTATION

3 The Roman Conquest of Europe By: Kierra Smith Mayra Hernandez Kayla Breeden

4 The First Romans The earliest to settle on the Italian Peninsula arrived in prehistoric times, B.C. The Latins, Greeks, and the Etruscans battled for control of the peninsula The Latins are considered the first Romans

5 The Latins, The Greeks, and The Etruscans The Latins built the original settlement of Rome The Greeks established colonies along Southern Italy and Sicily The Etruscans were native to Northern Italy and they strongly influenced the development of Roman Civilization

6 The Republic After Tarquin the Proud was taken from power, the Romans decided they would never be ruled by a king again After this was decided they established a republic After the creation of the republic, they expanded their territory by conquering Italy

7 The Italian Conquest To extend their power the legions battled for control of the Italian Peninsula By the 4th century B.C. the Romans dominated central Italy By 265 B.C. They had nearly of Italy

8 Treatment of the conquered people Rome treated different regions of its conquered people differently Neighboring Latins on the timber became full citizens of Rome In territories farther than Rome; they had all the same rights as citizens except the right to vote

9 Treatment continued All others were allies Rome didn t interfere with its allies as long as they supplied troops for the Roman army and didn t make friendship treaties with other states They all became partners in Rome s growth This policy toward defeated people helped Rome in building a long lasting empire

10 Carthage Carthage interfered with Roman access to the Mediterranean, where they traded In 264 B.C., Rome and Carthage went to war These were called the Punic Wars

11 The Punic Wars These were a series of three wars The first lasted 23 years and was fought for control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean Carthage was defeated The Second happened in 218 B.C. when Hannibal assembled an army to capture Rome The Romans stood strong and Hannibal never captured Rome

12 The Third Punic War The third war in 149 B.C. was when Rome laid siege to Carthage and made its territory a Roman province Rome s victories in the Punic Wars gave it control over the Western Mediterranean They then went on to conquer the eastern half and by 70 B.C. Rome s empire stretched from Anatolia to Spain Roman Republic

13 The Republic As Rome s territory expanded, it s republican government grew unstable The Republic collapsed as Romans experienced economic turmoil, civil war, and military upheaval In this military upheaval it was possible for a military leader supported by his troops to take control by force Because of this the government changed to dictator ruled and Julius Caesar came to rule as he tried to expand the empire

14 Julius Caesar Joined forces with Crassulus, a wealthy Roman, and Pompey a popular general Caesar was elected consul with their help in 59 B.C. For the next 10 years they dominated Rome as a triumvirate

15 Caesar During B.C. Caesar led his legions in a grueling but conquered all of Gaul He won his men s loyalty and devotion, because of his fully hardship in the war This made him very popular in the war

16 All or Nothing Caesar refusing to go back to Rome, led his army across the Rubicon River in Italy on Jan. 10, 49 B.C. Caesar s troops defeated Pompey s armies in Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt Caesar returned to Rome in 46 B.C. He was appointed dictator by the senate, and in 44 B.C. he was named dictator for life He governed as an absolute ruler

17 Differences For people in the provinces he granted Roman citizenship Expanded the senate with friends and supporters Created jobs for the poor Started colonies Increased soldiers pay

18 His Death Many people liked Caesar, yet many feared for themselves Marcus Brutus and Gauis Cassius and important senators plotted his assassination Caesar was stabbed to death in the senate chamber on March 15, 44 B.C.

19 The Second Triumvirate The Roman Republic what was left of it was destroyed when the civil war broke out again A Second Triumvirate was formed by Caesars 18 year old grandnephew, adopted son Octavian, Mark Antony, and a powerful politician named Lepidus, which lasted for 10 years

20 The End of the Second Triumvirate Jealousy and violence was the cause of the end to their alliance Octavian forced Lepidus to retire Octavian and Mark Antony became rivals

21 Continuation. Mark Antony meets Queen Cleopatra of Egypt He fell in love and followed her to Egypt Octavian accused Antony for plotting to rule Rome from Egypt Civil war broke out again At the Naval Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian Soon after Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide

22 A New Ruler of Rome Octavian restored some aspects of the republic Became the unchallenged ruler of Rome Accepted the title of Augustus or Exalted One He kept the title emperor

23 Powerful After All Since the rule of Augustus Rome was at the peak of power Throughout the empire, peace reigned, for 207 years That period was known as the Pax Romana The Roman empire was made of more than 3 million square miles million was its population About 1 million lived in the city

24 A Stable Government Augustus was Rome s ablest emperor. After Augustus died in A.D. 14, the government that he established survived for centuries. Due to the civil service of carrying out day-to-day business. The Romans managed to control an empire by the second century A.D. reached from Spain to Mesopotamia, from North Africa to Britain.

25 Roman Trade Rome had a vast trading network. The Romans built complex systems of roads linked the empire in places as far as Persia and southern Russia. These roads were originally built by the Roman army for military purposes. Trade brought Roman ways to its provinces and beyond.

26 Roman World Throughout History, the Romans emphasized the values of discipline, strength, and loyalty. The Romans were practical people that honored strength more than beauty, power more than grace, and usefulness more than elegance. The Roman empire was filled with people from all walks of life, creating a very diverse society.

27 Slavery Slavery was a vital aspect of Roman life. One-third of the population are slaves. Many slaves were treated cruelly and worked at hard labor all day long. Some strong, and healthy males were forced to become gladiators, or professional fighters, who fought to the death in public contests. Other slaves were better treated Occasionally slaves would revolt. None of the revolts succeeded. More than a million slaves lost their lives to gain their freedom.

28 Gods and Goddesses The Romans worshiped powerful spirits or divine forces, called numina. They thought they resided in everything around them. Lares were the guardian spirits of each family. Government and religion were closely linked. Deities were symbols of the state. Romans were expected to honor them in public worship ceremonies and in their private rituals at shrines in their homes.

29 Society By the time of the empire, wealth and social status made a huge difference in how people lived. The rich lived extravagantly. But, most people in Tome barely had the necessities of life. During the time of the empire much of the population was unemployed. So, the government supported the people with daily rations of bread. To entertain and control these masses of people the government provided free games,races, mock battles, and gladiator contests.

30 Spread of Christianity When Roman power spread to Judea, home of the Jews, many began to believe in the coming of the messiah. The messiah was a Jew named Jesus, according to the Bible. Jesus had a group of followers called disciples which then became to be known as apostles. Jesus lived a perfect life, and was crucified by Pontius Pilate. Later, according to the Gospel, Jesus rose from his tomb and ascended into heaven. Due to the magnificent life Jesus Christ did. A religion called Christianity was formed. Christians are people who follow and pattern their life after the perfect life of Christ.

31 Weakening Empire At the end of the reign of emperor Marcus Aurelius marked the end of a time period called Pax Romana. On the Mediterranean Sea, hostile tribes and pirates disrupted trade, weakening the economy. Due to this the economy suffered from inflation. The military was disarray after Pax Romana. Over time, the soldiers began their allegiance not to Rome but to their commanders, who fought amongst themselves for the throne. To defend against threats the government recruited mercenaries.

32 Restoration In A.D. 284, Diocletian came to power. He restored order to the previous unstable government. Diocletian then divided the empire into the Greek-speaking East and the Latin-speaking West. Due to ill-health Diocletian retired in A.D Civil War broke out immediately afterwards. By 311, four rivals were competing for power. Among them was Constantine.

33 Constantine In 312 A.D. Constantine gained control of the western part of the empire. In 324 Constantine secured control of the East, restoring the concept of a single ruler. In 330 A.D. Constantine moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city called Byzantium, which was eventually changed to Constantinople.

34 Constantine Accepts Christianity In A.D.313, the Roman emperor Constantine announced a end to the prosecution of the Christians. He then declared Christianity to be one of the approved religions by the emperor. In 380 emperor Theodosius made it the empire s official religion. Christianity united the Roman empire

35 Fall of Roman Empire After the empire was divided,the west fell to outside invasions. In 527 Justinian came to the throne. According to historians Justinian was the last Roman Emperor and the first Byzantine Emperor (even though the word Byzantine didn t exist). He set up a powerful government that lasted for a short period of time. The empire began to fall when a plague of illness hit the land and took a huge percentage of the population. It was then stuck by a wave of invasions. But, held them off for one hundred years, and finally fell to the Ottoman Turks.

36 SECTION TWO HANDWRITTEN REPORT

37 Roman Conquest of Europe By: Kierra Smith Kayla Breeden Myra Hernandez Handwritten Report

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