Era II Unit 6 WHI.6 Ancient Rome

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1 Era II Unit 6 WHI.6 Ancient Rome From Republic to Empire! Text in yellow is for notes! Voorhees

2

3 Symbolism- Western Civilization

4 SIC SEMPER TYRRANUS= Thus always to tyrants Quote- Brutus upon slaying of Julius Caesar May Virginia declared independence July 1, committee of four appointed to make seal- who were they? Richard Henry Lee, George Mason, George Wythe, and Robert Carter Nicholas Because of the strong admiration for the Roman Republic felt by the Virginia leaders, the design of the new seal was taken from the mythology of Ancient Rome

5 The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by a) locating Roman civilizations in time and place and describing their major geographic features;

6 Pompeii destroyed by an eruption in 79 CE Volcanoes made the region more fertile for agricultural development

7 Rome; Vesuvius (Pompeii)

8

9 (Italy= a peninsula shaped like a boot)

10 I. Geography- A. Italian Peninsula Mediterranean Sea

11 See where Rome is located

12 The Mediterranean Basin today

13 Ancient Rome B. The city of Rome, with its central location on the Italian peninsula, was able to extend its influence over the entire Mediterranean Basin

14 Rome s timeline in brief Draw this in your notes: 1. MONARCHY Centralized power King/ ruler No democracy 2. REPUBLIC Elected leaders Representatives Indirect democracy 700 BCE- 27 BCE 3. EMPIRE Centralized power Emperor No democracy 27 BCE- 476 CE

15 The Greek states came under the protection of Rome Roman conquests began in Italy and then spread to other parts of the Mediterranean world

16 The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by b) describing the social and religious structure of ancient Rome;

17 Romulus and Remus

18 II. Roman Mythology A. The Pantheon- for many gods

19 B. polytheistic religion

20 C. explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events gods and goddesses had very human emotions and behaviors

21 Roman Mythology D. Symbols and images in literature, art, monumental architecture, and politics

22 E. Roman gods and goddesses: (the same six from Greece) 1. Jupiter (Zeus) King of the gods, ruler of the sky Frequently associated with the emperor Augustus Caesar as Jupiter

23 Jupiter Jupiter was the ruler of the Roman pantheon pantheon= all the gods Pantheon= famous Roman temple for all the gods

24 Roman mythology 2. Juno (Hera) Queen of the gods, patron of family and marriage Given more respect in Rome than in Greece

25 Roman mythology 3. Apollo God of music, healing, light and the hunt

26 Roman mythology 4. Diana (Artemis) Sister of Apollo, goddess of the moon and hunting

27 Roman mythology 5. Minerva (Athena) Goddess of wisdom and skilled labor

28 Roman mythology 6. Venus (Aphrodite) Goddess of love and beauty

29 The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by c) describing the social structure and cultural development of the Roman Republic;

30 III. Roman Republic A. Democracy 1. the Roman Republic made major strides in the development of representative democracy 2. a foundation of modern democracy 3. Not allowed to participate: women, most aliens (non-citizen foreigners), and slaves

31 ROME; democracy 4. Representative democracy a) Assemblies b) The Senate c) Consuls 5. Laws of Rome codified as Twelve Tables

32 ROME B. Social structure in the Roman Republic 1. Patricians Powerful nobility (few in number)

33 Patricians in the Senate of Rome

34 ROME; plebeians- the common people 2. Plebeians Majority of population

35 3. Slaves- Involuntary service not based on race ROME; slavery

36 ROME; citizens 3. Citizenship: Patrician and plebeian men Selected foreigners Rights and responsibilities of citizenship (taxes, military service)

37

38

39 The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by d) describing and evaluating the political and military structure of the Roman Republic under the rule of Julius Caesar;

40 IV. The Punic Wars and Julius Caesar A. Punic Wars: Rome v. Carthage ( BCE) Rome and Carthage were in competition for trade Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded the Italian Peninsula The Wars will eventually be won by Rome

41

42 Who were the Carthaginians? Punic means Phoenician! Phoenician merchants established Carthage about 800 BCE The city quickly grew to become the greatest military and naval power of the western Mediterranean and Rome's most dangerous rival

43

44 B. Results of the Three Punic Wars: 1. Roman victory 2. The destruction of Carthage 3. Expanded trade and wealth for Rome With the victory over Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome was able, over the next 100 years, to dominate the Mediterranean basin, leading to the diffusion of Roman culture

45 Roman Republic; the country

46 The City of Rome; The Roman Republic (8 th 1 st centuries BCE)

47 C. End of the Republic 1. First triumvirate: a) Pompey controlled the prosperous east b) Crassus controlled Italy c) Caesar controlled the less wealthy west Pompey and Crassus plot against Julius Caesar but he defeats them 2. Julius Caesar gains control of the entire Republic

48 3. End of the Republic- CAUSES: a) Spread of slavery in the agricultural system b) Migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment c) Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar d) Devaluation of Roman currency; inflation

49 4. Julius Caesar is assassinated a) Julius Caesar rules as Dictator a temporary position b) He brings many positive reforms c) He becomes dictator for life, jeopardizing Rome s democracy d) Eventually he is assassinated by members of the Senate

50 Julius Caesar was assassinated when the some feared he would next declare himself king

51 End of the Republic changing social and economic conditions civil war replaced by an imperial regime= the Roman Empire

52 5. From Republic to Empire Octavian= Caesar s nephew a) Octavian and two other generals defeat the Senators who killed Julius b) They seize control = Second Triumvirate Octavian will become Augustus Caesar!

53 The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by e) describing and evaluating the political structure of the Roman Empire under the rule of Augustus Caesar

54

55 V. Roman Empire A. Civil war B. Octavian defeats Marc Antony and becomes sole ruler of Rome Octavian takes the titles Augustus Caesar The Roman Republic is dead, the Empire begins C. Rome s first emperor= Augustus Caesar (Octavian)

56 Roman Empire The Roman Empire grows Unified and enlarged Using imperial authority and the military Roman Empire and spread of Roman culture: Mediterranean basin (Africa, Asia, Europe, including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean) Western Europe (Gaul, British Isles)

57

58 The Roman Empire D. Augustus Caesar established the Roman Empire by instituting: 1. civil service 2. rule by law 3. a common coinage 4. secure travel and trade throughout the Empire

59

60 various emperors

61 Claudius Created a civil service system, Built aqueducts Drained marshes around Rome Constructed a nearby harbor He also opened Roman citizenship to certain people in the provinces His fourth wife, Agrippina, poisoned him so that Nero, her son by a former marriage, could succeed as emperor

62 Nero Nero was declared Roman emperor at age 17 He had many of his political enemies murdered or executed, including his own mother, who criticized his mistress Much of Rome burned during Nero s reign, and according to the historian Tacitus, Nero blamed the fire on the Christians He rebuilt the city, instituting fire precautions

63 Rome s success in holding the Empire together= soldiers

64 Rome; The Roman Empire (Circus Maximus) Amusement center popular from 600 BCE to 600 CE Events seen at the Circus Maximus included chariot races and combats between men and wild beasts

65 Mosaic- gladiators

66

67 hunters

68 The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by f) assessing the economic structure of Rome, Rome s imperial conquests, and the Pax Romana;

69 VI. Conquests and the The Pax Romana Following Augustus Caesar, the Roman Empire enjoyed 200 years of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana A. The Pax Romana= The Roman Peace 1. Two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule 2. Expansion and solidification of Roman Empire

70

71 Palmyra, Syria

72 Rome; The Roman Empire (theater)

73 Rome; The Roman Empire (amphitheater in Tunisia)

74 Rome; The Roman Empire (Algeria)

75 Rome; The Roman Empire (Hadrian s Villa)

76 Temple of Jupiter, Lebanon

77

78

79

80 The Pax Romana 3. Economic impact: a) Uniform system of money (helps trade) b) Safe travel and trade on Roman roads c) Prosperity and stability 4. Social Impact: a) Returned stability to social classed b) Increased emphasis on the family 5. Political impact: a) Created a civil service b) Developed a uniform rule of law

81

82 ROME Diffusion: Conquests and trade spread Roman cultural and technological achievements throughout the Empire Through time, as well: Western civilization was influenced by the cultural achievements of Rome

83 B. Roman Contributions 1. Art/architecture: a) Pantheon A Temple to all gods The largest dome of the ancient world The key ingredient in the Pantheon s dome was the Roman invention of concrete!

84

85 Roman Contributions then now

86 Roman Contributions Art/ architecture: b) Coliseum Site of thousands of free gladiatorial games The nearby Hippodrome (Race Track) also provided free entertainment

87

88

89 Roman Contributions then now

90 Roman Contributions then now

91 Roman Contributions

92 ROME; Contributions c) The Forum- public meeting space The Roman version of social media

93

94 Roman Contributions Technology: a) Roads

95 ROME

96 Roman Contributions Technology: b) Aqueducts

97

98

99 ROME; Contributions Technology: c) Roman arches

100 Roman Arch, France

101 The Arch of Constantine

102

103

104

105

106 3. Science a) Ptolemy Roman Contributions

107 Roman Contributions Scienceb) Medicine: Emphasis on public health (public baths, water system, medical schools)

108 Roman Contributions 4. Language: Latin, Romance languages

109 Latin languages= English, Spanish, etc.

110 Roman Contributions 5. Literature: Virgil s Aeneid

111 Roman Contributions 6. Religion: Roman mythology Adoption of Christianity as the imperial religion

112 Roman Contributions 7. Law= Twelve Tables and the principle of innocent until proven guilty

113

114 The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by g) evaluating the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Germanic invasions.

115 VII. The Fall of the Roman Empire A. Over a 300-year period, the western part of the Roman Empire steadily declined because of internal and external problems

116 The Fall 1. Failure to provide for peaceful succession of Emperors

117 The Fall 2. geographic size a) defense b) administration

118 The Fall 3. Economy the cost of defense and devaluation of Roman currency

119 The Fall 4. Military Army losing integrity starting to include non-romans resulting in decline of discipline

120 The Fall 5. Moral decay- people s loss of faith in Rome and the family STANDARD WHI.6k

121 The Fall 6. Political problems a) Civil conflict b) Weak administration

122 ROME 7. Invasion a) Attacks on borders b) Germanic peoples (barbarians)

123

124 The Fall B. Diocletian 1. Tries to save empire Ended Crisis of the Third Century Tetrarchy (rule of four) Diocletianic Persecution last big persecution of Christians

125 2) Split Roman Empire in half! easier to manage The Fall- Diocletian the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire each side had a ruler in charge of it the ruler who was in charge of Rome was the senior ruler

126 Diocletian s palace in Nicomedia

127

128 The Fall C. Constantine 1. moves capital to the East 2. from Rome to Byzantium 3. renamed it Constantinople D. Survival of Western Roman Empire until 476 CE, when it ceased to have a Roman Emperor

129 Roman Empire- split in two only this side fails this side lives on

130 The Fall E. Eastern Roman Empire= Byzantine Empire

131 Now it is time for REVIEW QUESTIONS

132 1. The city of Rome is located a) On an island in the Mediterranean Sea b) On the Peloponnesian Peninsula c) On the Mediterranean Coast of North Africa d) On the Italian Peninsula

133 2. Rome s citizens a) Included some foreigners b) Included slaves c) Included women d) Included only people born in Rome

134 3. Rome s social classes a) Plebeians were the upper class b) Patricians were the upper class c) Slavery was based on race d) Included only people born in Rome

135 4. Rome had this kind of democracy a) Indirect with representatives b) Direct like in Greece c) Did not have representatives d) Did not look like what we have today

136 5. The Twelve Tables was, for Rome, the a) The Constitution b) The Laws c) The Senate d) The best diner in all of Rome

137 6. Julius Caesar was a) The first emperor of Rome b) Leader of the Punic Slave Rebellion c) Dictator in the Republic d) King of Rome during monarchy times

138 7. Rome invented this Arches Concrete Domes Roads

139 8. Rome s religion was Polytheistic mythology Monotheistic mythology Mythological Hebrewism Animism Mythology

140 9. Augustus Caesar Was Dictator of Rome Championed democracy Developed the Twelve Tables Was the first emperor of Rome

141 10. The democracy of the modern world Comes from the Roman Republic Is directly connected to Athens, Greece Comes from the Roman Empire Is modeled after the Spartans of Greece

142 Okay LET S SEE HOW YOU DID!

143 1. The city of Rome is located a) On an island in the Mediterranean Sea b) On the Peloponnesian Peninsula c) On the Mediterranean Coast of North Africa d) On the Italian Peninsula

144 2. Rome s citizens a) Included some foreigners b) Included slaves c) Included women d) Included only people born in Rome

145 3. Rome s social classes a) Plebeians were the upper class b) Patricians were the upper class c) Slavery was based on race d) Included only people born in Rome

146 4. Rome had this kind of democracy a) Indirect with representatives b) Direct like in Greece c) Did not have representatives d) Did not look like what we have today

147 5. The Twelve Tables was, for Rome, the a) The Constitution b) The Laws c) The Senate d) The best diner in all of Rome

148 6. Julius Caesar was a) The first emperor of Rome b) Leader of the Punic Slave Rebellion c) Dictator in the Republic d) King of Rome during monarchy times

149 7. Rome invented this Arches Concrete Domes Roads

150 8. Rome s religion was Polytheistic mythology Monotheistic mythology Mythological Hebrewism Animism Mythology

151 9. Augustus Caesar Was Dictator of Rome Championed democracy Developed the Twelve Tables Was the first emperor of Rome

152 10. The democracy of the modern world Comes from the Roman Republic Is directly connected to Athens, Greece Comes from the Roman Empire Is modeled after the Spartans of Greece

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