Ancient Rome Republic to Empire. From a Republic to an Empire 509 B.C. 476 A.D.

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1 Ancient Rome Republic to Empire From a Republic to an Empire 509 B.C. 476 A.D.

2 Roman Security System

3 The Republic s Military First only patricians served in the army. Rome had many enemies: Gauls, Latins, Etruscans Gauls burned Rome in 390 BC Senate turned to all citizens including the plebeians to serve!

4 Army supported by trades and taxes. Strict discipline Low pay for lower classes

5 Trained in use of slings, javelins, spears & swords The Legions Divided into legions. Define. Legions were divided into 60 centuries. Why? Smaller units for swift movement. New military tactic!

6 How did the Republic treat those they conquerored? Roman Legions

7 The Punic Wars Rome vs. Carthage Carthage City-state on Northern coast of Africa Dominated western Mediterranean trade and islands: Sardinia, Corsica, & Sicily Sea traders Expansionist Policies

8 Carthage Rome

9 First Punic War 264 B.C. Cause Rivalry over trade routes in the Mediterranean Sea and Sicily

10 First Punic War 264 B.C. Results Rome victorious Forced Carthage to give up Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia Pay war reparations 2,200 Euboean talents for 20 years

11 Second Punic War B.C. VS. Hannibal Class Reading: Hannibal of Carthage Scipio

12 Second Punic War B.C. Hannibal Carthaginian general Introduces surprise attack concept with Alps invasion His military strategies are still studied today at the US Military academies

13 Second Punic War B.C. Scipio Roman general Led attack on Carthage Forced Hanninbal home

14 Third Punic War Cause Carthage violates terms of treaty Senate wants complete destruction of city

15 Third Punic War Results Carthage destroyed Earth salted so crops won t grow All killed or enslaved Becomes a province of city of Rome

16 Our Sea Results of Punic Wars Rome captures Macedonia, Greece, and Asia Minor The Mediterranean is Rome s

17 The Republic in Crisis 100B.C. Major Problems: Small farmers no longer needed to produce food; large estates had taken over Farmers flock to Rome and other cities looking for jobs

18 The Republic in Crisis 100B.C. Greed and self-interest replace virtues of simplicity, hard work, and devotion to duty Now lived for pleasure and luxury

19 The Republic in Crisis 100B.C. Civil Wars Break Out legions stationed in provinces to stop uprisings poor paid by army generals to serve

20 Revolts and Civil Wars Conquered people forced to work as slaves 30 % Rome s people enslaved Spartacus Leads Revolt Conquerors two legions But 6,000 are crucified His body is never found! Spartacus

21 The Rise of Julius Caesar Elected consul in 60 B.C. First Triumvirate formed Caesar, Pompey, & Crassus Shared power Conquered territories Gaul, Germanic tribes, & Britain Seen as a military hero- Veni, vidi, vici

22 Results The Rise of Julius Caesar Triumvirate falls apart Senate demands Caesar to return w/out his army Crossing the Rubicon means an act from which there is no turning back Civil war ensues Caesar hailed as dictator for life in 45 B.C.

23 Army veterans given land Colonies established Provided jobs for trade for poor Libraries, temples & Forum built Distributed free grain Aligned with the solar year Course of Tiber River altered Built roads & bridges to connect empire All roads lead to Rome

24 Many feared he would assume title of king & set up a dynasty 60 members of Senate plot to kill him The Ides of March (15 th ) stabbed 23x s Mourners lay flowers at the site of his demise

25 Who Will Reign? Mark Antony is believed to be the heir. J. Caesar surprises many by naming his grand nephew Octavian ruler.

26 Who Will Reign? But there is a woman Cleopatra VII Watch Great Romances: Antony & Cleopatra

27 Imperial Rome s Government

28 2 Roman Empire Established The 500-year republic comes to an end. The Roman senate gives Octavian the title of Augustus Caesar, or Exalted One; the first citizen of Rome. The age of the Roman Empire begins in 31 B.C

29 2 Roman Empire Augustus laid the foundation for a stable government that would function well for 200 years. This period was called the Pax Romana. Was there really 200 years of peace?

30 Augustus Reforms 1. Created efficient civil service to enforce the laws. 2. Opened up high-level jobs to men of talent, regardless of race. 3. Allowed cities and provinces to govern themselves. Augustus First Emperor of the Empire

31 Augustus Reforms 4. Ordered a census, or population count, in order to make the tax system more fair. 5. Set up a postal service and issued unified monetary system of coins. 6. Employed the jobless. Augustus First Emperor of the Empire

32 The Empire Expands Empire expands after Augustus rules A.D. 117 reached biggest size New territories organized to provinces Laws enforced Allowed to live as usual

33 The Empire Expands How did the empire maintain control and communication?

34 Benefits of Expansion Provinces act as buffers for Rome Produced food Paid taxes: supported army and road systems

35 Good Emperors Tiberius and Claudius members of Augustus family were efficient rulers who continued to make reforms to benefit all classes of citizens Hadrian 117 A.D. Built Hadrian s Wall in Britain to Passed laws to protect women, children and slaves Able, tireless ruler Hadrian s Wall

36 Good Emperors Marcus Aurelius,, last good emperor of the Pax Romana era. -Strong sense of duty -Fought invaders -Philosopher Emperor -His son began the reign of bad emperors leading to Rome s decline.

37 Two Reformers Diocletian 1. Divided the empire into two parts to make it easier to govern 2. Fixed prices to slow inflation, or the rapid rise of prices 3. Established laws to ensure steady production of food and goods

38 Two Reformers Constantine 1. Continued Diocletian s reforms 2. Granted toleration to Christians, which led 2. to the rapid growth of Christianity 3. Built a new capital at Constantinople, 3. making the eastern part of the empire the center of power

39 Divided Roman Empire

40 Bad Emperors Nero the Madman Insane & believed to set Rome afire and sang in the process

41 Bad Emperors Caligula Collected shells on beaches to say he conquered the sea Almost named his horse consul

42 Bad Emperors Sulla Made announcements of whom he wanted dead

43 Mount Vesuvius Pompeii: Vesuvius - What Did the Eruption Look Like? What happened that terrible day in 79 AD Pliny: Eye Witness Account!

44 Roman Accomplishments

45 Roman Achievements Art 1. Sculptors stressed realism. 2. Artists depicted life scenes in mosaics and frescoes.

46 Roman Achievements Technology Created aqueducts for piped water Built an extensive road system Over 50,000 miles

47 Pantheon Virtual Tour Pantheon

48 Engineering Wonders Roman Engineering Accomplishments Roman Roads

49 The Roman Road System

50 Roman Achievements Architecture Developed rounded dome Changed design and improved the Greek column and arch

51 Colosseum & Circus Maximus Colosseum 80 A.D. Held gladiator & animal fights Held 50,000 people Circus Maximus Held chariot races Held 250,000 Bread and Circus Policy

52 Colosseum & Circus Maximus Colosseum Virtual Tour Colosseum Gladiator: Dressed to Kill Game

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