B. After the Punic Wars, Rome conquered new territories in Northern Europe& gained great wealth

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1 I. Roman Republic Expands A. Punic Wars - A series of battles where Rome defeated Carthage (North Africa) & became the dominant power in the Mediterranean B. After the Punic Wars, Rome conquered new territories in Northern Europe& gained great wealth

2 II. The Roman Military A. Rome was protected by an advanced army that was divided into groups of 5,000 soldiers called legions B. Each legion was divided into smaller groups of 80 men called a century

3 Roman Weapons/ Technology ballista and the catapulta

4 C. Problems with growth 1. New lands & sources and reliance on slave labor increased the gap between the rich & poor 2. Generals who controlled the armies became more powerful than the politicians in the Senate 3. Civil wars in Rome

5 D. Julius Caesar One of the generals who led Rome s expansion E. Caesar became popular because he offered citizenship and land to those that followed him F. Named Dictator ruler who heads the military and controls with total authority

6 G. Senate grew jealous of Caesar s power H. 44 BC Senators assassinated Julius Caesar I. Beware the Ides of March!

7 I. End of the Republic & Rise of the Empire A. Caesar s death changed Rome: People no longer trusted the Senate to rule Rome & the Roman Republic came to an end & the empire began After his death there was a period of unrest and civil war

8 B. Octavian given the title Augustus ( Exalted One ), & became Rome s first emperor -he was Caesar s adopted son -Senate still met, but emperor had real power. C. Pax Romana ( the Roman Peace ) from 27 B.C. to 180 A.D. D. Augustus 41 year reign marked the beginning of a 207-year era of peace, wealth, & expansion Rome is now the Roman Empire.

9 *Copy this chart into your notes

10 Question? Look at the map below what continents did the Roman empire include during the Pax Romana?

11 D. Golden age of Rome - emperors like Augustus built roads & a merit-based bureaucracy to rule the empire What is merit? Roman aqueducts brought water to cities which allowed cities to be built all over

12 The Roman Forum

13 Roman Roads: The Appian Way

14 The Roman Colosseum gladiator fights Built in 80 AD Gladiators would fight each other or wild animals to the death Gladiators were usually slaves, criminals or prisoners of war Some female gladiators Colosseum sat 50,000 people

15 Circus Maximus chariot races Most popular form of entertainment Chariot Racing was very dangerous- often resulting in death Could hold 250,000 people Rebuilt in 65 AD

16 F. Emperors built arenas & used chariot races, gladiator events, & theater to entertain the poor The Roman Coliseum

17

18

19 Fall of the Roman Empire Pax Romana-ended after Emperor Marcus Aurelius The Emperors that came after him were too weak to hold the massive empire together Roman Empire starts to decline (poor economy, higher taxes, corruption in the military) Diocletian became emperor in 284 AD- very strict, but improved things; said that the empire had gotten too large for one ruler Western Roman Empire- the Latin speaking areas: Italy, Gaul, Britain, Spain Eastern Roman Empire- Greek speaking areas: Greece, Anatolia, Syria, Egypt (led by Diocletian; was richer and had the most important cities)

20 Emperor Constantine 312 AD- Constantine, a military commander, gained control of the Western Roman Empire He reunited the Eastern and Western Empires and moved the capital to Byzantium, a Greek city in present day Turkey Eventually the city was named Constantinople Very harsh ruler Became a Christian and made Christianity legal (became official religion of Rome in 395 AD) Empire was divided again after his death

21 Collapse of the Empire Western Roman Empire: Series of attacks by Germanic tribes 410 AD- Rome looted 476 AD- Last Roman Emperor taken from throne Broken into separate kingdoms ruled by different tribes Eastern Roman Empire: Now called the Byzantine Empire Continued to thrive for 1000 years Collapse of the Roman Empire = End of the Ancient World

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