2 Geography of Italy Italy is a peninsula in southern Europe. It s shape looks like a boot. In the North there are the Alps. Apennines cuts in the middle of the peninsula. These mountain ranges made it difficult for enemies or people to cross over. Some mountains are volcanic. The terrain is composed of hills. Rome sits on top of seven hills. Rivers were of fresh water. Most famous of them is the Tiber River which flows through Rome.
4 Climate of Italy Italy s climate is warm with dry summers and rainy winters; similar to southern California. Known for its grapes, citrus, grapes, and olives.
5 Legendary Origins First peoples lived around 800 BCE but not much is known of them. Legend goes far back to the Trojan War. A mighty hero named Aeneas escapes after the Myceneans conquered and destroyed Troy. Aeneas and the rest of the Trojans make it to Italy. He makes an alliance with people there named Latins. The forged alliance wiped out enemies around them. Aeneas marries the daughter of the Latin king and their descendants become strong rulers. Aeneid is an epic poem written by Virgil around 20 BCE.
7 Legend of Rome s Founding Romulus and Remus are the original founders of Rome. Descendants of Aeneas. As babies they were found in a basket in the Tibur River by a wolf who cared for them for years. A shepherd found the boys and adopted them. When grown up both of them decided to found a city where the wolf rescued them. Remus made fun one of Romulus s city ideas. Out of anger Romulus killed Remus and founded the city of Rome.
9 Rome s first kings Romulus is the first king of Rome in 753 BCE Seven kings ruled, three of them are Etruscans. Etruscans are peoples located north of Rome influenced by Greek culture. Etruscan kings built temples and first sewer; also believed to introduce the alphabet and numbers. Last Roman king was said to be cruel. In 509 BCE the nobles overthrew him and started the Roman Republic.
10 Early Republic Roman officials had lot of power to rule the city but elections were done every year. This was to prevent any individual from becoming to powerful in the republic. Republic: People elect leaders to govern them Rome was not a democracy. In democracies the power is by the people. In a Republic elected officials were from a small wealthy, powerful class.
11 Challenges of the Early Republic Internal Challenges Romans consisted of both Plebeian & Patricians. Plebeian: Common people Patrician: Nobles In 494 BCE Plebeians wanted to have more power. So the Plebians started their own council. Patricians felt threatened and had to find a solution to not cause a divisive Rome. External Challenges Romans fought in wars for 50 years. Even though they won many, the lost many lives and property. In war the Romans chose a dictator. They only had power for 6 months. It limited Dictator: Rulers with absolute power Cincinnatus ruled in 458 BCE. He was chosen to fight off Rome s enemies. Once he finished he returned to his life of farming.
12 Plebian v. Patrician Plebian Patrician Commonors Wealthy, powerful citizens Peasants, traders, etc. Nobles Majority Minority Gained right to participate in government Once had controlled all aspects of government Only Romans who could be traders After 218 BCE, can t participate in trade
15 Government & Society
16 Government Plebs were not happy. Patricians decided to give power to Plebs and divided the government into 3 parts. This is known as tripartite government. Tripartite government: Three part government
17 Tripartite Government Magistrate Elected Officials Two most powerful were the Consuls Elected every year to run army and city. Other magistrates managed other parts of government Senate Council of wealthy and powerful Romans that advised the consuls Served for life Controlled financial affairs. Consuls later became Senator. 300 make up Patrician and wealthy Plebs Assemblies & Tribunes Assemblies elected Magistrates Can serve all their life in assemblies Tribunes can veto actions of other officials Veto: Prohibit Tribunes had one year term
18 Checks & Balances Keep one part of government from getting stronger than the other parts
20 Civic Duty Roman citizens were involved with their government It was their duty to participate in voting and assemblies. Wealthier people filled public offices. Those most active in government gained respect from other Roman citizens.
21 Law of the Twelve Tables The laws were set up by the patricians and only they knew all the laws. The plebs were upset and demanded to have the laws written and shown publicly. As a result twelve laws were written on bronze tablets in 450 BCE and posted in the Roman Forum. Forum: Public meeting place. Over time there were more laws, but these twelve were the original ones.
22 Roman Forum Heart of Rome Place for Religion and Government. Also known for meeting place. The Forum is located between Palatine Hill and Capitoline Hill. Palatine is where the richest people lived. Capitoline is where the greatest temples stood.
25 Late Republic
26 Late Roman Republic In 387 BCE a peoples known as the Gauls attacked and conquered Rome. The Romans paid lots of gold to have them leave. Other neighbors took advantage and attacked Rome Once Rome defended their lands, they marched out and expanded out throughout the Italian Peninsula. Their victories are due to their legions. The army was well organized and flexible. Legion: Groups of up 6,000 soldiers.
29 Societal Changes & Trade Most Romans used to work as farmers. Once Rome s boundaries expanded many of them moved to the city. Wealthy landowners built large farms in countryside and slaves made up the labor force. Most owners lived in Rome and had someone else overlooking the land. Farmers couldn t keep up with the population growth. So merchants imported food, slaves, and metal goods to Rome. Romans paid back by making coins of copper, silver, etc.
30 Punic Wars Series of war between Rome and Carthage. Carthage is a city in northern Africa. Punic: Phoenician The Romans and Carthaginians were engaged in three wars from 264 BCE to 146 BCE.
32 First Punic War 264 BCE to 241 BCE Rome s goal was to control Sicily by first capturing a city known as Messina. Carthage was known for its warships, the quinquereme, a five tiered ship rowed by 300 men. Rome captured one of the Cartheginian ships and copied its design with an improvement. They installed ravens, a drawbridge with a metal point sink onto enemy ships decks so Roman marines can board them.
33 First Punic War Rome was able to defeat the Carthaginians at sea but they were unable to take Carthage s land in Africa. After 20 years of warfare the Romans won and controlled Sicily. Eventually will take Corsica. Overtime Carthage gained control in the territory of Spain.
36 Second Punic War 218 BCE to 203 BCE In 218 BCE a strong willed general Hannibal devised a plan that was unthinkable. With an army of 32,000 infantry, 8,000 cavalry, and elephants he did the impossible. He marched his army not only rivers but marched over the Alps north of Rome. This was a major military achievement. Though he lost many, he was able to regroup from the Celtic tribesmen in the land. Hannibal defeated the Romans in Lake Trasimene and his most famous victory in Cannae.
39 Second Punic War Hannibal was unable to conquer Rome because he didn t he enough manpower and the Romans frustrated his supply lines leaving Hannibal isolated. In 203 BCE Hannibal returned to Carthage because a Roman general known as Scipio marched toward Carthage. Hannibal faced defeat to the hands of Scipio in the Battle of Zama, which ended the Second Punic War. Carthage surrendered Spain, all the Mediterranean islands, and pay massive amount of money to Rome.
42 Third Punic War 149 BCE to 146 BCE Carthage was no longer powerful but revived its economy. Roman statesmen Cato the Censor stated, Delenda est Carthago Carthage must be destroyed Romans attacked Carthage for two years but failed until Scipio Aeminilius, grandson of he who beat Hannibal, blockaded the city and captured Carthage. Carthage became no more but a Roman province.
44 Roman Republic Expansion After the Punic Wars, the Roman Republic conquered the Greek lands. The Romans adopted Greek culture. Tensions started to increase between the rich and poor Roman citizens as Rome got bigger. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus attempted to help the poor by creating farms for them on public land. This caused the wealthy to riot. Tiberius attempted it first in 133 BCE and was killed in a riot Gaius tried later and sold food to the poor with cheaper price. He was killed as well. The death of the Gracchus brothers changed Roman policy. Violence was since then seen as a political weapon.
45 Roman Republic Expansion After the Punic Wars, the Roman Republic conquered the Greek lands. The Romans adopted Greek culture. Tensions started to increase between the rich and poor Roman citizens as Rome got bigger. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus attempted to help the poor by creating farms for them on public land. This caused the wealthy to riot. Tiberius attempted it first in 133 BCE and was killed in a riot Gaius tried later and sold food to the poor with cheaper price. He was killed as well. The death of the Gracchus brothers changed Roman policy. Violence was since then seen as a political weapon.
47 Gaius Marius & Sulla People who enlisted to the army had to own property In 107 BCE Gaius Marius recruited poor people to join army because Rome needed more troops. The soldiers were more loyal to Marius than Rome which gave him political power. In 88 BCE Lucius Cornelius Sulla, a Roman consul, led a conflict which brought Rome to civil war. Sulla won the war and became dictator and punished all his enemies.
49 Spartacus Spartacus, a former gladiator, led a revolt against Rome s leaders demanding freedom. His army conquered the southern part of Italy but he died in battle. The Romans executed all 6,000 slaves as examples to those who dare to defy Roman rule.