Corbin Hillam. Author Cindy Barden. Author Cindy Barden. Illustrator. Illustrator. Copyright 2002

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1 THE ROMAN EMPIRE by Cindy Barden illustrated by Author Cindy Barden Illustrator Book Design and Production Good Neighbor Press, Inc. Copyright 2002 Milliken Publishing Company a Lorenz company P.O. Box 802 Dayron, OH All rights reserved. All rights reserved. The purchase of this book entitles the individual teacher/purchaser to reproduce copies by any reproduction process for single classroom use. The reproduction of any part of this book for use by an entire school or school system or for any commercial use is strictly prohibited. THE ROMAN EMPIRE by Cindy Barden illustrated by Author Cindy Barden Illustrator Book Design and Production Good Neighbor Press, Inc. Copyright 2002 Milliken Publishing Company a Lorenz company P.O. Box 802 Dayron, Dayton, OH All rights reserved. The purchase of this book entitles the individual teacher/purchaser to reproduce copies by any reproduction process for single classroom use. The reproduction of any part of this book for use by an entire school or school system or for any commercial use is strictly prohibited.

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Activities marked with an * can be used with one of the transparencies at the back of the book. Activities Timeline of Ancient Rome The Glory That Was Rome * Learning About the Ancient Romans * The Roman Empire The Republic of Rome * II, IV, VI, VIII! Roman Numerals are Really Great! The Roman Calender Who Am I? * Waging War and Keeping the Peace * Bath Time: A Social Occasion Getting Dressed in Rome The Cities That Disappeared Roman Myths and Legends Roman Myth Story Frame Going to School in Ancient Rome At Home in Ancient Rome Let s Eat Slavery in Ancient Rome * A Visit to the Colosseum Time for Fun Along Came the Christians Think About It Ancient Roman Trivia Then and Now Ancient Roman Projects Learn More About the Romans and the Roman Empire Answer Key Transparencies Use with activities on... What Is It? pages 4 and/or 11 The Roman Empire page 5 The Influence of Latin on English page 7 Ready for Battle page 10 Providing Water the Roman Way page 11 The Colosseum, A Bloody Arena page 20 The Roman Forum All Roads Lead to Rome ii Copyright 2002 Milliken Publishing Co. MP8820

3 TEACHING GUIDE FOR TRANSPARENCY PAGES What Is It? Transparency This transparency can be used as a stand-alone activity or in conjunction with the activities on pages 4 and 11. This item was used to hold oil to be rubbed on someone s body during a massage after a bath. At the end of the massage, the long tools would have been used to scrape oil and dirt from the body before the person returned to the hot bath. The Roman Empire As students complete the Roman Empire activity they should get a feeling for the vast extent of the area once controlled by Rome. This transparency will also be a helpful reference for places mentioned in the text in other activities. The Influence of Latin on English Latin was the official language of the Roman Empire. Countries conquered by Rome had their own languages, but officials learned to speak Latin. Latin later became the official language of the Christian Church. Many English words, prefixes, and suffixes come to us from Latin. This transparency can be used as a stand-alone activity, in conjunction with the activity II, IV, VI, VIII! Roman Numerals Are Really Great!, or as part of a language arts unit as students define each English word and list other words for each Latin root. Discuss how knowing the meaning of a Latin root word can help us understand the meaning of an unfamiliar English word. Ready for Battle To conquer and hold the vast territory of the empire, the Roman army needed to be larger, better trained, and better equipped than any other. Roman soldiers wore equipment for protection in battle and carried weapons for fighting. Iron helmets protected soldiers heads, faces, and necks. Body armor was made of hinged iron plates or chain mail. Soldiers carried shields made of wood and covered with leather for protection. Weapons included daggers (about 10 inches long), short swords (about 20 inches long), and spears. This transparency can be used in conjunction with the activity, Waging War and Keeping the Peace. Providing Water the Roman Way All large cities need a constant supply of water for drinking, cooking, washing, and bathing. As students complete the activity, Bath Time: A Social Occasion they will learn how important it was for the Romans to have a reliable source of water. An aqueduct is a channel built to carry water. It may be open or closed, above ground or below. An aqueduct bridge carries water over a valley or river. The Romans built the first underground aqueduct around 310 B.C.E. The first aboveground aqueduct, 56 miles long, was built in 144 B.C.E. With over a million people living in Rome, the need for a large supply of water was constant. The Romans also built aqueducts in many countries they conquered. The Roman aqueducts were so well built that some remain standing today. In fact, aqueducts still provide water to some of the fountains in Rome. The Colosseum, A Bloody Arena In the Colosseum, a huge Roman Amphitheater which held 50,000 spectators, gladiators and slaves fought each other and wild animals in bloody contests. This transparency can be used in conjunction with the activity, A Visit to the Colosseum. Copyright 2002 Milliken Publishing Co. MP8820 iii

4 TEACHING GUIDE FOR TRANSPARENCY PAGES Gladiator contests were not banned in Rome until 404 A.D. The Romans continued to stage animal fights until 523 A.D., but it had become more and more difficult to find wild animals. Eventually they had to use farm animals like goats, horses, and bulls. Later the Colosseum was turned into a fortress. From the 1200s to the 1400s, it became the stage for religious plays and in the 1400s, bullfights became popular. After the 1700s, many people began to view the Colosseum as a holy place because of all the Christians who had died there. Although fallen partially to ruin, the Colosseum has been cleaned up and is now a popular tourist attraction. The Roman Forum A forum was an open space in the central part of a Roman city. At first it was used as a place for people to meet, shop on market day, attend religious festivals, and enjoy public entertainment. The forum also became the meeting place for elections and other political events. This stand-alone transparency can be used to spur a discussion of the importance of politics to the Romans and a comparison of the forum to modern day complexes, such as city government centers, malls, churches, and temples. Latin for marketplace, the forum was an important part of the daily life of many Romans. All Roman cities had at least one forum. Large cities like Rome had several. Eventually the forum became the political center of cities and included civic and administration buildings, important temples, and shops. All Roads Lead to Rome In the second century B.C.E., the Romans began building a system of roads to connect Rome with all parts of the empire. About 53,000 miles of roads were built by the Romans and maintained by the people in conquered countries. Later road crews often used the same routes to build modern roads. The major roads were wide enough for three chariots to drive side by side. The system of roads, together with the powerful Roman army, enabled Rome to maintain their huge empire for hundreds of years. Parts of these roads can still be seen today. The system of Roman roads provided a way for the army to travel between Rome and other territories, allowed supplies to be brought in and trade goods sent out, and enabled army leaders in the field to communicate through messengers with their commanders. Building a Roman road: 1. Workers dug two parallel ditches to drain away excess water. 2. Then they dug foundations down to bedrock or clay. 3. They covered the foundation with a layer of sand and four layers of stone and concrete. 4. They paved the surface with flat rocks. Roads were slightly higher in the middle, allowing water to run off into the ditches along the road. iv Copyright 2002 Milliken Publishing Co. MP8820

5 Name TIMELINE OF ANCIENT ROME: B.C.E. 753 B.C.E. Founding of Rome. 509 B.C.E. Rome became a republic. 390 B.C.E. Gauls attacked Rome. 312 B.C.E. Construction on Appian Way began. 290 B.C.E. Romans defeated the Samnites. 275 B.C.E. Rome controlled most of Italy B.C.E. First Punic War with Carthage. Romans built first warships B.C.E. Second Punic War. Hannibal attacked Italy but was ultimately defeated B.C.E. Third Punic War. Rome destroyed Carthage. 133 B.C.E. Rome controlled lands along the coasts of Spain, France, Greece, Turkey, and northern Africa. 106 B.C.E. Birth of Cicero B.C.E. Gladiator Spartacus led unsuccessful slave uprising B.C.E. Julius Caesar conquered Gaul and invaded Britain. 45 B.C.E. Julius Caesar became dictator after several civil wars. 44 B.C.E. Julius Caesar killed by Marcus Brutus B.C.E. Octavius defeated Marc Antony at Battle of Actium. 27 B.C.E. Octavius (Augustus Caesar) became first emperor of Rome. Copyright 2002 Milliken Publishing Co. MP8820 1

6 TIMELINE OF ANCIENT ROME: A.D A.D. Reign of Emperor Tiberius, stepson of Augustus A.D. Reign of Caligula, great-grandson of Augustus, probably not mentally well. He made his horse a member of the senate A.D. Reign of Claudius, uncle of Caligula A.D. Reign of Emperor Nero, Caligula s nephew and stepson of Claudius. He was a cruel tyrant who murdered his mother, wife, and stepbrother and was in turn murdered by his own guards. 64 A.D. Fire destroyed much of Rome. Nero blamed the Christians. Many Romans blamed Nero A.D. Reign of Vespasian; Colosseum built. 79 A.D. Mount Vesuvius erupted A.D. Roman Empire reached greatest size during reign of Emperor Trajan. Born in Spain, he was the first emperor born outside of Italy. 122 A.D. Construction of Hadrian s Wall began to mark northern border of the Roman Empire. 126 A.D. Pantheon built A.D. Rule of Emperor Commodus. 200 A.D. Women banned from fighting as gladiators A.D. Reign of Constantine, Rome s first Christian emperor. 392 A.D. All religions expect Christianity became illegal. 395 A.D. Rome split into Western and Eastern Empires. 404 A.D. Gladiator games banned by Emperor Honorius. 410 A.D. Goths attacked and captured Rome. 455 A.D. Vandals attacked Rome. 476 A.D. Roman Empire fell to Germanic invaders. 523 A.D. Last animal games held in the Colosseum. 2 Copyright 2002 Milliken Publishing Co. MP8820

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