Ancient Rome. Unit 2 From Village to Empire

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1 Ancient Rome Unit 2 From Village to Empire

2 Origins of Rome A. Romans claimed that their city was built by two brothers, Romulus and Reamus 1. Legend said they were the sons of a princess and the Roman god of war Mars a. Jealous king ordered them drowned b. Gods protected them and sent she wolf to save them

3 c. Saved by sheperd d. Eventual kill the jealous king and found city on seven hills that overlook the Tiber River

4 Rome was founded as a Latin City Romulus was likely a Latin who unified the people then settled on the Seven Hills Aeneas and the Trojans join with them, borrowing a great deal of culture and identity They then come to rule the Latins The seven hills allowed for easy defense of the city

5

6 In addition to strategic hills, the Tiber provided rich soil, and gave them access to the Mediterranean, which allowed for trade Rome centered around an island in the Tiber, which seems to be a likely place for a ford

7 The Latins in Rome were conquered by the Etruscans, a tribe from the North c. 600 The Etruscans developed the city and ruled until 509 B.C. when the Latins (mostly called Romans now) rebelled and formed a Republic

8 During the Etruscan period the people faced another people group called the Albans, who were another tribe with similar culture and structure to the Etruscans In this war, the Horatii brothers fought with the Curiatii brothers as champions of the Etruscans

9 2. The Latins eventually called themselves Romans a. Gave Rome its language, Latin 3. The Greeks controlled southern Italy and Sicily Greek influence on Rome art, architecture, literature, government, agriculture (grapes, olives and goats)

10 II. The Roman Republic After the defeat of the Etruscans and their kings, the Romans created a republic (Republic = government in which the citizens rule through elected representatives) A. The Roman Republic survived for almost 500 years 1. By 264 B.C., the Romans had conquered the entire Italian Peninsula a. Etruscans in North, Greeks in South

11 I. Rome s Contribution to Western Society A. Many Romance languages (Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Romanian) trace their origins to the language of the Romans (Latin) 1. English language adopted Latin words a. Examples: via, interim, item, agenda, pro, con, a.m. (ante meridiem, before noon), p.m. (post meridiem, after noon)

12 B. America shares the form of government used in Rome, republic 1. Many of our government terms and symbols, (senate, veto, senator etc.) come from Rome

13 C. Religion 1. Early Christianity arose during the Roman Empire a. Was able to spread because of the advanced Roman road system b. Eventually Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire i. allowed Christianity to become major world religion

14 D. Roman art and architecture 1. Still influential in the modern world

15 E. Roman inventions 1. Developed road construction techniques, aqueducts, domes, and concrete

16 ROME SPREADS ITS POWER

17 A. The Roman Senate The most powerful part of the government of the Roman Republic 1. Originally made up of 300 upper-class men called patricians a. Patricians = member of wealthy family b. Ordinary people were called plebians

18 B. i. In the early republic, plebeians could not hold office or be senators The Roman Consuls two consuls formed the executive power of the Roman Republic 1. Executive = part of government that enforces laws and policies 2. Elected by the citizens a. Before 367 B.C, Plebeians could not be consuls

19 3. Consuls ruled for one year and had equal power a. Both consuls had to agree before government could act i. One consul could declare Veto (I forbid) and the matter had to be dropped C. Other Important Officials because of the potential for a deadlock between Consuls, particularly in times of danger, a dictator could be appointed

20 1. Dictator could hold all the powers of a king, but only for six months 2. Praetors at first functioned as junior consuls a. Later became judges that settled disputes in civil trials i. civil trial = trials regarding money, business matters, contracts, etc.

21 D. Patricians vs. Plebeians conflicts developed between the patricians, who grew rich as Rome expanded 1. Patricians used the money gained by conquest to buy small farms a. Farmers lost jobs as slaves worked on farms i. soon Rome was filled with unemployed plebeians

22 2. Plebeians refused to serve in army a. Demanded written code of law b. Law of the Twelve Tablets i. these tablets were placed in the marketplace so they could be read by all aa. Plebeians never got equal right with patricians, but citizens continued to have extensive rights.

23 E. Rome Conquers the Mediterranean During the Republic Rome conquered the areas surrounding the Mediterranean 1. Punic Wars Between 264 B.C. and 146 B.C. Rome fought three wars against the armies of Carthage a. longest war in history (118 years) b. Punic war got its name from Rome s name for Carthage, Punics (from Phoenicia) i. in the adjective form punic means treachery

24 2. First Punic War : 264 to 241 B.C After 23 year of fighting Rome defeated Carthage and imposed heavy conditions for peace a. Rome became the dominant naval power in the Mediterranean b. Both states financially crushed c. Terms of peace: Rome divided the Mediterranean i. Africa, Hispania, Corsica, Sardinia to Carthage rest to Rome

25 Punic Wars

26 3. Second Punic War Famous for Carthaginian general, Hannibal s crossing of the Alps with war elephants a. Carthage is ultimately defeated

27 Second Punic War

28 4. Third Punic War After the Second Punic War their was a lot of unemployment a. Farmers were lost while men were away fighting i. Slaves were used to farm the land ii. Unrest among the plebeians b. Rome decided to start war with Greece, who had helped Carthage in Second Punic War i. Would get rebellious men out of Rome

29 c. Roman armies were victorious in east d. Carthage was harassed by Roman allies i. Due to terms of peace in Second Punic War, could not fight back ii. Called on Rome to help them Rome refused iii. Declared war on Rome iv. Defeated after siege of Carthage v. Cato, an older Senator who remembered Second Punic war called for Carthage to be destroyed

30 vi. "Carthage must be destroyed." (in Latin, Carthago delenda est). vii. People of Carthage forced out of city and the city was destroyed

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