Empire. 1. Rise of Rome 2. The Roman Republic 3. Decline of the Republic and Rise of the

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1

2 1. Rise of Rome 2. The Roman Republic 3. Decline of the Republic and Rise of the Empire 4. The Pax Romana 5. The Rise of Christianity 6. The Fall of Rome

3 Geography Etruscans Latins Carthaginians Greeks

4 Indo-Europeans moved into Italy One of those groups were the Latins (Romans) Etruscans and Greeks moved in later and took territory Carthaginians also took land (Phoenicians)

5 Etruscans Ruled northern Italy Eventually takes over Rome Romans learned the basis of their society from the Etruscans

6 Drive out Etruscan king in 509 BCE Sovereign Roman state founded Establishes a republic Same time as Marathon

7 Patricians and Plebeians First all government officials are Patricians Plebeians eventually demand power Slow progress

8 12 Tablets Set up in the Forum, or the marketplace Plebeians now know laws because they re written down Why important?

9 The Government of Rome in the Republic Graphic Organizer

10 Family is the basic unit Patriarchal Women = dutiful, loving, dignified, and strong Valued Education

11 Roman Republic Women Own property, could own businesses Most worked at home Patrician women had many more rights

12 Religion Polytheistic Adapted from the Etruscans and Greeks

13 Slaves Slavery a major part of Roman society and economy from beginning Conquered peoples from war Seen as property

14 By 270 BCE, Rome controls most of Italy First Etruscans Then Greek city-states and Greek colonies Italy unites under Roman Rule as Allies to Rome

15 Why successful? Well-trained army Citizen soldiers Small payment Riches made in conquering Valued arête

16 Why successful? Diplomacy Defeated groups paid taxes, acknowledged Roman leadership, supplied soldiers Defeated groups kept own customs, money, local government Roman citizenship to some Trade in Rome Light touch

17 Why successful? Firm control of rebellion no mercy was shown to rebels rebellions were crushed and usually all individuals and their families were executed

18 Carthage North Africans and Phoenicians Conflict between Rome and Carthage increase Punic Wars decide who will control Western Mediterranean

19 First Punic War 23 year war Rome wins Rome now superior naval force in the Mediterranean Sea Won the islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia

20 Second Punic War Rome v. Hannibal Hannibal invade from the Alps with elephants Roman general attacks Carthage Rome wins Rome controls Spain and North Africa

21 Third Punic War Rome still fears Carthage Wipes the city out Rome now dominant in the Western Mediterranean

22 Hellenistic Wars First Macedonia/Greece Second Pergamum Third Seleucia

23 Hellenistic Wars provided 1. Power 2. Wealth 3. Prestige 4. Slaves Mediterranean = Mare Nostrum Our Sea

24 Republic is not set up to be an Empire 3 major problems

25 1. Trouble with Italian Allies Backbone of Roman support Treat allies liked conquered people Allies become angry

26 2. Private armies General control army, not Rome Generals begin to abuse power Battles between Roman generals

27 3. Latifundia system Plantation system Depends on slave labor Creates massive urban unemployment

28 Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus Plebian brothers Reform Rome, especially land distribution Seen as too radical Both are murdered by Patricians

29 A general named Marius had the idea of recruiting the landless poor for his military and promised land in return for service This created a soldier force loyal to Marius and not Rome A general named Sulla copied Marius actions and acquired a military force

30 Marius v. Sulla

31 Civil war broke out between these 2 armies over who should have the command of a war in Asia Minor Sulla s army won the war and then seized the city of Rome to wipe out all opposition to him

32 Sulla was friends with many Senators so once he had all the power he turned it back over to the Senate hoping to restore the Republic His actions set a precedent, though If a general had a loyal army he could seize Rome The generals to come wouldn t give power back to the Senate

33 Rise of an Empire Twitter Project Julius Caesar Pompey Crassus Cleopatra Mark Antony First Triumvirate Augustus Caesar (Octavian) Second Triumvirate

34

35 Latin for Roman Peace 200 year span from the rule of Augustus to Marcus Aurelius Prosperity for Rome

36 Age of Augustus First emperor is Augustus Caesar, formerly Octavian Incredibly popular and successful

37 Age of Augustus Kept Senate in place, refused dictatorship Merit system Allowed self-government throughout empire

38 Age of Augustus Stable government New tax system Census Rebuilt infrastructure of Rome Expands Rome

39 Age of Augustus T-chart on pg. 159

40 Age of Augustus Names adopted step-son, Tiberius, his successor

41

42 Panem et Circenses Bread and Circuses Circus Maximus Roman Coliseum Welfare state

43 Rome is tolerant of other religions as long as the people remained loyal to Rome Polytheism prevalent Accepted Roman Gods

44 Judea allowed to worship as monotheists Most Jew live under Roman rule Zealots want an independent state

45 Judea goes into rebellion Jerusalem is destroyed by Romans Jew scattered around Mediterranean

46 AT THE SAME TIME. Jesus begins preaching in Judea

47 Jesus of Nazareth Jewish Justice, morality, and service to others Messiah

48 Jesus of Nazareth Seen as threat by Roman authorities Uniting Jews Sentenced to death

49 Paul Jew with citizenship from Rome Spread the teachings of Jesus Wrote letters to Christian communities Traveled around Mediterranean

50 Romans are not tolerant of Christians Christians did not conform to Roman practices Christians killed at the hands of persecution became known as martyrs

51 The message of Christianity speaks to the masses Poor, lowly, oppressed Used Greco-Roman philosophy to explain Christian message

52 Roman infrastructure aids in the spreading of Christianity Wrote in Greek and Latin

53

54 Death of Marcus Aurelius ends Pax Romana 26 emperors in the next 50 years Rome has become Poor Overtaxed A unsustainable welfare state

55 Diocletian (284 CE) Divided empire into two parts Eastern and Western Economic reforms Blames problems on Christians

56

57 Constantine (312 CE) Continued reforms Toleration of Christians Moves capital to Constantinople

58 Rome under constant attack by Germanic peoples Huns for Germans towards Rome Visigoths Ostrogoths Vandals 476 CE Roman emperor is ousted by Germanic leader

59 Discussion Question 1 Read the 4 reasons that caused Rome to fall on pages Pick the one that you think is the most important Write one paragraph (5 sentences) explaining the reason and why you think it s the most important.

60 Discussion Question 2 Read the Comparing Viewpoints on page 176 Do you think Rome s fall was inevitable or impossible to avoid? Why? (5 sentences)

61 Discussion Question 3 Do you see similarities between the United States today and Rome during its decline?

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