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1 SECTION 5: ROMAN EMPIRE

2 DA2E52FB1EF80C9

3 DECLINE OF ROMAN REPUBLIC

4 ECONOMIC TURMOIL Rich vs. Poor Latifundia-Huge Estates (Plantations) Republican form of government became increasingly unstable

5 PROBLEMS Created by: Conquering Lands Taking unattended lands of soldiers Discontent amongst lower classes and breakdown in military order

6 LABOR Slaves from Punic Wars 1/3 of Rome s population

7 LOSS OF LAND Could not compete with slave labor Sold lands to wealthy

8 EFFECT OF LAND LOSS (PLEBEIANS) Increased homeless and jobless (Increase unemployment) Became Migrant Workers Moved to cities-remained unemployed

9 EFFECT OF LAND LOSS (PATRICIANS) Became corrupt Increased class tensions Contributed to fall of Republic

10 THE GRACCHUS BROTHERS Proposed Reforms to Tribune Limited Latifundia Size Give land to the poor Reaction Opposed by Senate Both Gracchus died violent deaths Led to period of Civil War-conflict between two groups in same country

11 MILITARY UPHEAVAL (CHANGES) Military less loyal Growing turmoil in the republic Generals began seizing power Recruited soldiers from unemployed by promising them land Allegiances shifted from Rome to Generals Leaders could take over by force

12 DEVALUATION OF ROMAN CURRENCY Roman money is not worth what is used to be worth Inflation means that prices are more but money is worth less

13 JULIUS CAESAR Strong Military Leader Served 1 Year Term as Consul- 59 BC

14 TRIUMVIRATE Group of Three Leaders First Triumvirate will dominate Rome Julius Caesar Marcus Licinius Crassus Gaius Pompey

15 LEADER Strong leader and genius military leader Appointed himself governor of Gaul (now France) Conquered all of Gaul

16 CAESAR VS. POMPEY Civil War Caesar ordered to return without Legions Crossing Rubicon (river) led to Civil War Defeated Pompey in Greece Elected Dictator, then Dictator for Life

17 CAESAR S REFORMS Governed as absolute ruler (one who has total power) Weakening Patrician Power Expanded Citizenship to many people in the provinces Added Friends to Senate Created jobs through building projects Created colonies for landless Increase pay for soldiers

18 CAESAR S DEATH Patrician Class (Senate) afraid of Reforms Senators plotted his assassination Stabbed to death in Senate

19 CIVIL WAR After Caesar s death, Civil War breaks out Leads to end of Roman Republic 3 of Caesar's supporters band together and end war

20 2ND TRIUMVIRATE (43 BC) Octavian Mark Antony Lepidus End of Triumvirate-rule for ten years Lepidus forced to retire

21 MARK ANTONY Accused of trying to rule Rome from Alexandria Cleopatra Led to Civil War Mark Antony defeated by Octavian

22 IMPERIAL ROME

23 A U G U S T U S C A E S A R

24 EMPEROR AUGUSTUS (OCTAVIAN) Kept aspects of a republic Became unchallenged ruler Titled himself Augustus Rome is now an empire

25 ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF AUGUSTUS Stabilized frontier Building Programs System of government that would be used for years Civil Service Paid government workers to manage affairs of government Managed Grain supply, taxes, postal system

26 AUGUSTUS DEATH 14 AD System (Civil Service) maintained stability Carried out day to day tasks without emperor

27 E M P I R E

28 Unified and enlarged, using imperial authority and the military Largest empire of the time

29 AGRICULTURE Most people farmers (90%) Local produce supported people Most important industry in empire

30 MONEY Silver coin-denarius Used throughout empire (common currency) Trade became easier Encourage cultural diffusion

31 TRADE NETWORK Mediterranean shipping protected by Navy Important Cities-Corinth, Ephesus, Antioch, and Alexandria

32 ROADS Linked Empire together Built for military use Became trade routes Encouraged cultural diffusion and trade

33 IMPORTANT ROADS Silk Road-China to Western Europe Apian Way-Linked Northern and Southern Italy

34

35 LATIN Official language of Empire Unified Empire Remained common language of Europe through 1500 A.D. Romance Languages Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian

36 FAILURE TO PROVIDE FOR PEACEFUL SUCCESSION OF EMPERORS Every time an emperor (who comes to power by force) dies, there has to be another civil war to decide who the next ruler will be

37 B A D E M P E R O R S

38 TIBERIUS 14 AD to 37 AD Adopted son of Augustus Accused many of treason

39 CALIGULA AD Tiberius Grand Nephew Became mentally ill, killed by Praetorian guard

40 CLAUDIUS AD Caligula s Uncle Scholar who lost focus on state affairs

41 NERO AD Claudius stepson Bankrupted Rome Paranoid Committed Suicide

42 G O O D E M P E R O R S K N OW N F O R L E A D E R S H I P A N D S U P P O RT O F B U I L D I N G P R O J E C T S A L L L I V E D B Y S TO I C P H I L O S O P H Y

43 TRAJAN AD Extended empire to largest size Vast building program Enlarge social welfare

44 HADRIAN AD Strengthened fortifications Hadrian's Wall

45

46 MARCUS AURELIUS AD Increased economic strength of Rome

47

48 PA X ROMANA

49 PAX ROMANA (GOLDEN AGE) Two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule Expansion and solidification of the Roman Empire Empire of 3 Million Square miles Empire s Population million Rome s population 1 million Peak of Empire 27 BC to 180 AD

50 ECONOMIC IMPACT Established uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads Promoted prosperity and stability

51 SOCIAL IMPACT Returned stability to social classes Increased emphasis on the family

52 POLITICAL IMPACT Created a civil service Developed a uniform rule of law

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