1 Chapter 5: Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity 509 BC-AD 476
2 Geography Like Greece Italy is a peninsula. Not broken into small valleys Apennine Mts run down the length of the peninsula and are less rugged than the Mts of Greece. Broad fertile plains in the north and the westsupport growing population
3 Origins 800 BC Latins arrive along the Tiber River 7 small villages on seven small hilltops-rome the city on 7 hills Twin Brothers, Romulus and Remus, sons of a Latin woman and the war god, Mars, founded Rome Belief in Divine origin.
4 Early Italian Peninsula Greek colonists lived in city-states in the south Etruscans lived in the North
5 Early Italian Peninsula Rome adopted the alphabet from the Etruscans who had learned it from the Greeks. Learned the arch in construction Used engineering techniques to drain the marshy lands along the Tiber. Adopted some Etruscan gods and goddesses and merged them with Roman deities.
6 Early Italian Peninsula Rome drove out Etruscan rule by 509 BC-this Roman state would last 500 years. Government called in Latin a res publica, or that which belongs to the people. People chose some officials so nobody could gain too much power.
7 Early Roman Republic Originally 300 members of the senate: Patricians-land holding upper class Each year two consuls from the patrician classconsuls supervise govt business and commanded armies
8 Early Roman Republic A dictator was chosen in the event of warterm limit of 6 months. Cincinnatus-model dictator. He organized an army, led to a victory, attended a celebration, and was back on his farm in 15 days.
9 Early Roman Republic Plebeians-farmers, merchants, and artisans had citizenship, but little influence. Gained the right to elect their own tribunes to protect interest and veto laws harmful to plebeians. The Laws of the Twelve Tablets-made it possible for plebeians to appeal court decisions. US Constitution modeled after the Roman ideas of senate, veto, and checks on political power
10 Early Roman Republic Male, head of household, had absolute power. Women could own property, run businesses. Wealthy Romans hired tutors for their children, memorized Roman history. Future politicians studied rhetoric. Romans were polytheistic-greek gods-roman names
11 Early Roman Republic Romans first conquered the Etruscans and then the Greek city-states. Roman Legions consisted of 5000 men. Citizen soldiers--- small stipend--mostly spoils of war Taught loyalty and obediencealso harsh punishment Bravery was rewarded A disgraced unit saw 1 of every 10 men put to death.
12 Early Roman Republic Conquered people had to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers, but kept their own customs, money, and local govt. Some groups received full citizenship-other partial citizenship--even marry a Roman or trade in Rome. Generous policies kept conquered land loyal even in troubled times.
13 Early Roman Republic Soldier were posted throughout the landmilitary roads link territories. Local people incorporated Latin in their languages as trade increased. Slowly Italy united under Roman Rule.
14 Rome-Republic to Empire 1. Generals and Senators compete for power 2. Civil Wars ensue because of the competition
15 1st Triumvirate -3 powerful individuals 1. Pompey-a generalthe muscle-takes Spain 2. Marcus Licinius Crassus-richest man in Rome-the money-takes Syria 3. Julius Caesar-young general-the mouthtakes Gaul
16 1st Triumvirate Crassus dies 53 BC-Senators support Pompey and vote for Caesar to give up his command. Caesar and his loyal army illegally cross the Rubicon River and march into Rome, defeats Pompey and becomes Dictator from 49 (47)- 44 BC.
17 Reforms of Caesar 1. Redistributes land to poor 2. Grants citizenship to newly acquired peoples 3. Unites empire by allowing provinces a stake in the empire 4. Public building projects help reduce unemployment (FDR) 5. Increase pay for soldiers 6. Julian calendar 7. Restricts importation of slaves into city of Rome
18 Caesar Absolute power-wore purple as if a kingopposition appears in the Senate-fear of a dynasty March 15, 44 BC-Ides of March Brutus, his best friend, and a group of men stab Caesar to death as he entered the Senate- Et tu Brute? -Civil War ensues Prior to his death, Caesar adopted his grandnephew-octavian-18 years old (he claimed to have no son, but most likely had a son with Cleopatra of Egypt.)
19 2nd Triumvirate 1. Octavian 2. Marc Antony-asst. to Caesar-allies with Egypt 3. Marcus Lepidus-commander of the cavalry (not a contender) Octavian s army smashed Antony and Cleopatra who flee back to Egypt and commit suicide one year later. Octavian, 32, sole supreme rule over the Roman world-ended the civil war and the republic
20 Age of Augustus Octavian returns some power to the Senate but maintains absolute power. Offers to resign, but the Senate wants him to keep the empire stable Awarded the title Augustus (exalted one) he prefers Princips-meaning 1st citizen After 100 years of civil war, peace is achieved-pax Romana-Roman peace 27 BC- 180 AD
21 Reforms 1. Maintained a standing army of 28 legions, 150,000 men (only citizens) 2. Subject peoples could serve in aux. forces-130,000 men 3. Praetorian guard-9,000 menguard the emperor 4. Augustus had power to overrule the senatorial governors and establish unity in politics 5. Stabilized the frontiers of Roman Empire (failed to conquer Germanic tribes) 6. A complete census was taken so taxes could be set fairly
22 Augustus Augustus dies of old age-4 members of his family (or adoptive family succeed him) 1. Tiberius and Claudius-dedicated to peace 2. Caligula and Nero-viewed as insane Caligula appoints his favorite horse to the senate 64 AD fire destroys Rome under Nero 68 AD Nero commits suicide
23 Outstanding emperors: Trajan, Spaniard-empire reaches largest size; Hadrian-issued laws protecting women, children, and slaves- Hadrian s wall in Britain; Marcus Aureliuseducated-study more than fight
24 Roman Achievement Captive Greece has conquered her crude conqueror. Horace Virgil, The Aeneid : Roman equivalent to Homer Romans adopt Greek philosophy-stoicism; concern for all people, Emperor Marcus Aurelius is an example of a great Roman thinker.
25 Roman Achievement Mosaic Art: picture made from chips of colored stone or glass. Roman engineering excelled. They built roads, bridges, harbors, and aqueducts; wealthy people had water piped to their houses and each community had public baths. Tribute: Roman Tax
26 Roman Achievement Ptolemy-Geocentric Universe-accepted for the next 1500 years. Civil Law ruled citizens Law of Nations governed non-citizens Two systems merged Law of Nations ruled bothcitizenship was extended to all under Roman rule
27 Roman Achievement Law could be Rome s greatest achievement Basic principles developed that Americans use today --An accused person was presumed innocent until proven guilty --The accused was allowed to face the accuser and offer a defense against the charge --Guilt had to be established clearer than daylight (beyond a reasonable doubt)
28 Rome: the eternal city international city-pop. grew to perhaps 5,000,000-people flock to city for education, advancement, entertainment- emperors undertook projects to beautify the city-rich in culture- Latin language in the West-Greek in the East- Roman culture spreads and mixes with Greek (others)- Huge contrasts between the rich and poor-poor packed into tenements
29 Trade and Society trade flourishes-coined money issued Social Divisions: sharp class divisions-small powerful business class- thousands of unemployed counted on emperor for bread-riots- merchants and artisans form an active middle class- small farmers-slaves-slavery destroy the small middle class because the wealthy would rather use slaves than pay the middle class.
30 Troubling Signs: governing such a large empire required a great deal of money, could not rely on war loot (no more wars), too expensive to maintain army, reduced army size (weakened defenses), economy suffered an unfavorable balance of trade (imported more than they exported), lead was added to gold to make more coins (devalued the coins), prices raised, increased money supply and caused inflation.
31 Beginning of the end 180 AD the death of Marcus Aurelius-civil war erupts-end of Pax Romana (Augustus) No efficient system of successionbetween AD, emperors ruled-2 died of natural causes- corruption weakens Civil Service- law and order declinetrade/commerce disrupted/declinedevalued coins-inflation- invaders attack (barbarians)
32 Reforms of Diocletian 284 AD-legions made Gen. Diocletian emperor-ruled as a Despot/Despotism- harsh new laws meant to strengthen the empire- divided the Empire in half and took control of the wealthier Eastern Provinces. He appointed a co-emperor to rule the western prov. reorganized civil serviceenlarged the army-trained new cavalry units-set limits on prices and workers could not change jobs
33 Reign of Constantine Diocletian ill, power struggle 312 AD Constantine wins- 324 AD Constantine reunited eastern and western empire- built new capital of empire at Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople-influence of Rome declines (claiming Rome has a pagan past)-constantinople is to be a Christian city (the new Rome)- after Constantine s conversion to Christianity, no more persecution of Christians)- 337 AD Constantine dies-empire splits once again-eastern flourishes-western collapsed
34 The Collapse German Tribes: Had military strength, courage, strict morality; Chiefs fight for victory-soldiers fight for chief; needed more land for their growing pop cross into Roman Empire Huns: from Central Asia; superb riders and cruel warriors; Huns are taking E. Europe under their leader, Attila Scourge of God Visigoths and Ostrogoths: defeated Romans at Adrianople- Rome is no longer an unbeatable army
35 The Fall 476 AD Minor German Chief Odacer-captures Rome, forced emperor to give up throne and proclaimed himself King of Italy The empire did not collapse quickly-it fell gradually: People continued to enforce Roman law and speak Latin
36 The Fall 476 is the official year of Western collapse. Eastern survives for another 1000 years after Rome fell. Constantinople became a thriving area for commerce, strong civil service, and preserved Greco-Roman Civilization.
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