Chapter 8 Reading Guide Rome Page 1

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1 Chapter 8 Reading Guide Rome Page 1 Section 1 Rome s Beginnings The Origins of Rome: Main Idea played a key role in the rise of Roman civilization 1. is a long, narrow Peninsula with a shape that looks like a boot. 2. The are mountains that separate Italy from European lands to the north. 3. The is the mountain range that runs the length of Italy. 4. The Italian landscape has less rugged than the Greek landscape making travel easier and giving it a geographical advantage. 5. Rome was built in central Italy on the plain of. 6. The River gave the Romans a source of water and a way to the rest of the Mediterranean world. 7. Traditional legend says that and founded the city of Rome. 8. was the Trojan hero of the Aeneid (a famous epic poem). 9. united the Trojans (after the Greeks captured Troy) and the Latins (the local people) and became the father of the Romans. 10. Historians believe that Rome was founded between and B.C. 11. The played a major role in shaping Roman civilization. 12. The Etruscans were skilled in. The Birth of the Republic: Main Idea The Romans created a and conquered Italy. By treating people fairly, they built Rome from a small city into a great power. 13. In 509 B.C., the Romans overthrew the (a cruel ruling family) and set up a. 14. What is the definition of republic? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 15. By B.C., the Romans had conquered the Greeks and had taken over most of Italy. 16. What is the definition of legion? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 17. A Roman soldier was called a 18. In addition to being tough and good fighters, Roman soldiers (legionaries) were also (built military settlements with roads, etc.)

2 Chapter 8 Reading Guide Rome Page 2 Section 2 The Roman Republic Rome s Government: Main Idea Rome s republic was shaped by a struggle between and as it gradually expanded the right to vote 1. What is the definition of patrician? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 2. What is the definition of plebeian? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 3. Only could hold political office in early Rome. 4. The ruling class and top officials of the Roman Republic were the. 5. What is the definition of consul? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 6. What is the definition of veto? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 7. What is the definition of praetor? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 8. A group of 300 patrician men made up the, Rome s most important legislative/lawmaking body. 9. Members of the Senate served for. 10. In 494 B.C. many plebeians went on (they refused to serve in the army and even left the city to start their own republic) 11. In 471 B.C. the plebeians were allowed to set up their own body of representatives called the 12. In 287 B.C. the gained the power to pass laws for all Romans. 13. What is the definition of dictator? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 14. The best-known early Roman dictator of the Republic was. 15. Cincinnatus was dictator for days and then returned to his farm. 16. Adopted around 451 B.C., Rome s first code of laws was called the (only applied to Roman citizens). 17. The were laws written on tablets that described the in the Roman Republic. 18. The stated principles of justice (innocent until proven guilty, people accused of crimes could defend themselves in front of a judge) that applied to all people everywhere. 19. The idea that the law should apply to everyone equally and that all people should be treated the same way by the legal system is called the

3 Chapter 8 Reading Guide Rome Page 3 Rome Expands: Main Idea Rome slowly destroyed the Empire and took control of the entire Mediterranean region. 20. The was fought over control of the island of Sicily. 21.Rome fought for control of the Mediterranean region (the area around the Mediterranean Sea). 22.In the Second Punic War attacked Rome. 23. was a Roman general who helped win the Second Punic War. 24. The Romans defeated the Carthaginians once and for all in the Punic War. A. Roman Soldiers Carthage B. They enslaved people C. They spread on the ground so that nothing could grow. 25. The Romans called the mare nostrum our sea

4 Chapter 8 Reading Guide Rome Page 4 Section 3 The Fall of the Republic Trouble in the Republic: Main Idea The use of hurt farmers, increased poverty and corruption, and brought the army into politics. 1. Farmers were sinking into poverty and debt because A. were unable to farm because they were. B. they suffered during Hanibal s invasion (2 nd Punic War) 2. What is the definition of latifundia? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 3. To win the votes of the poor, Roman politicians began providing and. 4. and Gracchus worked to bring reforms (change) to the early republic. 5. Tiberius and Gaius wanted to give 6. changed the Roman army from citizen volunteers to paid professional soldiers. Julius Caesar: Main Idea Military hero seized power and made reforms 7. What is the definition of triumvirate? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 8. The First Triumvirate was made up of,, and. 9. was seen as a hero by Rome s lower classes and is widely considered to be Rome s most famous leader. 10. The phrase is used today to mean making a decision that you cannot take back. 11. In 44 B.C. Julius Caesar declared himself to be. 12. The -month calendar is a reform of Julius Caesar that affects us today. 13. The Calendar had 12 months, 365 days, and a leap year. 14. Julius Caesar was stabbed to death of March 15, 44 B.C. (the of March) Rome Becomes an Empire: Main Idea The Roman Republic, weakened by civil wars, became an empire under. 15. Following the death of Caesar,, and created the Second Triumvirate in 43 B.C. 16. At the Battle of Actium, Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by and fled to Egypt. 17. was a political leader, and Rome s greatest public speaker.

5 Chapter 8 Reading Guide Rome Page Cicero called for a government with limited powers and argued against dictators. 19.Octavian changed his name to which means the revered or majestic one Section 4 The Early Empire The Emperor Augustus: Main Idea By and and, Augustus created a new era of prosperity 1. The reign of Augustus began a long era of that lasted about 200 years. 2. What is the definition of? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 3. The Julio-Claudian rulers included,,, and 4. gave his favorite horse the position of consul. 5. is best remembered for having fiddled while Rome burned. Unity and Prosperity: Main Idea Rome s system of,,, and, made the empire rich and prosperous. 6. restored order and put down a Jewish rebellion and destroyed their temple in Jerusalem. 7. Vespasian began construction of the Colosseum a famous Roman sporting site. 8. What is the definition of aqueduct? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 9. Under Emperor Trajan, the Roman Empire s European boundaries were set at the and Rivers. 10. was built for defense in northern Britain to keep out the Picts and the Scots. 11. and became big business in central (middle of) Italy. 12.The most important element in Rome s booming economy was. 13. Ostia was a port city at the mouth of the River. 14. What is the definition of currency? Check your Ch. 8 definitions 15. improved Rome s trade because it was accepted throughout the Mediterranean region. 16. The Romans created a standard system of and to make it easier to price, trade, and ship goods. 17. and benefited from the Roman Empire s prosperity while the farmers remained poor.

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