6 th Grade Social Studies. Ch. 9.2 & Vocabulary. The Path of Conquest

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1 6 th Grade Social Studies Ch. 9.2 & Vocabulary The Path of Conquest 1. B.C.-Romans extended their rule a. Fought many wars b. B.C. Rome controlled nearly all of the Italian Peninsula 2. The Wars a. Carthage- wealthy city-state in northern Africa b B.C.-Rome fought 3 wars with Carthage for control of in Mediterranean Sea i. Punic Wars (from Punicus, the Roman word for ) B.C. - Punic War a. Rome gained control of i. Sent a governor to oversee its (self-governing region) b. Conquered and B.C.- Punic War a. Carthage started in now Spain and marched toward Rome i. General led soldiers and elephants over the high, snow-covered Alps to the Italian Peninsula. 1. several key battles ii. Roman General invaded northern Africa forcing Hannibal to return to defend his home. 1. B.B Scipio s army defeated Hannibal in the Battle of Zama near Carthage B.C.- Punic War a. Romans the city of Carthage b. Left ruins and the people i. Roman victory left the western Sea and areas of Spain and Africa under their control

2 ii. Rome conquered,, & parts of southwest iii. Divided new lands into iv. Conquered people had to pay v. Many conquered people were taken as. vi. Money taken from the provinces made the upper-class Romans vii. Slaves taken to Rome made the lower class 1. WHY? a. lost their jobs or lands as their work was turned over to slaves i. Caused conflict between classes 3. The Civil Wars a. Provinces brought wealth to Rome i. Caused issues on how to govern faraway lands 1. Result= wars ii. B.C.- Sulla became dictator for 3 years B.C.-retired and power returned to a. and led as consuls 2. B.C.- Julius Caesar became consul a. Formed an army and captured (now France) i. Well liked b. 46 B.C.- returned to Rome to conquer the Italian Peninsula c. His leadership and military victory = for 10 years i. Changed the to better represent the Romans ii. Issued that helped the poor iii. Created new jobs iv. Gave to more people including those from the provinces v. His popularity gave him

3 vi. worried that Caesar would become king 1. Plotted to him 2. March 15, 44 B.C. known as the of March a. Small group of senators stabbed Caesar at a Senate meeting i. Caesar s death let to another war Benefits More lands Drawbacks More money Slave labor XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 4. The End of the Republic a. Marcus (Mark Antony), a general in the Roman army became Rome s new leader i. Close friend & advisor of Caesar ii. Hoped to carry out Caesar s plans for Rome iii. Senate named Antony as new 1. Next year his rule was 2. Caesar did not have a son but adopted his great-nephew, a. Senators wanted him to lead Rome b. B.C.-Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus (a general) formed a triumvirate c. : group of three rulers who share power i. Struggled for power

4 ii. Antony and Octavian worked together to defeat Caesar s enemies in the Senate and remove from power 1. Civil war began for control of Rome and provinces 2. Antony s army was against Octavian s a. had been conquered by Caesar b. Queen Cleopatra formed an alliance with Caesar in order to stay in power c. Antony formed an alliance with against Octavian 3. B.C.-Octavian s forces defeated Antony and Cleopatra in the sea battle near Actium near Greece B.C.-Octavian s army defeated a. Antony and Cleopatra died soon after their defeat b. Octavian became an ruler of all Roman lands 5. B.C.-Roman Senate gave Octavian the title Augustus ( respected one holy one ) iii. Octavian was Rome s first emperor 1. Adopted title: princeps ( first citizen ) 2. He made sure that in some ways the government was representative 3. Roman ended when Augustus s rule began

5 Rome fought the Punic Wars against Carthage to gain control of trade in the Mediterranean Sea. The Romans divided their new lands into provinces in which conquered people had to pay taxes to Rome and some were taken as slaves.

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